In the post-WWII world, a growing consensus emerged among demographers, philanthropists, activists, and world leaders that populations were increasing too quickly in the "developing world" of Africa, Asia, South America and the Caribbean. Pointing to stable/rising birth rates and declining death rates across a number of countries, commentators warned that population growth would, at best, slow the process of economic development, and at worst, fuel poverty, conflict, and/or a turn to communism. This panic over population growth became the central focus of newly created population think tanks and university courses, while also fuelling a wave of state-run family planning programs supported by an expanding international aid apparatus. By the mid-1960s, the study and control of population had become a billion dollar, transnational endeavour.
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