This finance brief summarizes the history of water and sanitation services provision in the U.S., U.K., and South Korea and considers whether this historical experience is relevant to low- and middle-income countries today.
  • In the U.S., national and local governments investments were responsible for water and sanitation provision.
  • In the U.K., small private providers initially provided water and sanitation, but over time these became public utilities.
  • In South Korea, initial funds for water and sanitation came from foreign aid. Taxes and tariffs have since replaced this aid.
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