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Ministry of State for Planning, Republic of Kenya;
Kenya initiated bold economic and structural reforms from 2003 when the NARC government came to power. The economy made remarkable recovery over the 2003-2007 as real Gross Domestic Product grew from 2.9% in 2003 to about 7.1% in 2007. On average the real GDP grew by 5.3% over the period despite adverse effects of drought and high oil prices. Industrial output expanded by an average of 5.3%, the services sector also expanded by 5.3% while the underlying inflation remained at the target of 5.0 % with poverty declining from 53.6% in 2000 to 45.9% in 2005/6. However, real GDP growth slowed to 1.6% in 2008 as a result of both domestic and external shocks, which included postelection violence, drought, high food and fuel prices and the global financial crisis.
Central Bank of Kenya;
The report presents trend analysis and in-depth assessment of the global and domestic macro-financial developments affecting and emanating from the macroeconomy and the financial system. It analyses the performance and interactions involving the real economy, financial markets, financial institutions, financial infrastructure, and review of the legal and policy frameworks in 2013.
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Kenya;
Since independence, Kenya has been progressing towards the realization of human development. The national economy has expanded throughout the years, and significant progress has been achieved in reducing genderbased differences, supporting the development of the most vulnerable segments of the population, improving access to health and sanitation services, promoting a more equitable access to resources, protecting human rights, and valuing individual goals and objectives. Consequently, the 2012 Human Development Index (HDI) estimate for Kenya is now 0.522, an improvement from the previous year's score of 0.509. This score is higher than the average for Sub-Saharan Africa.
Commission on Revenue Allocation, Kenya;
The Commission on Revenue Allocation was established in December 2010 under Article 216 of the Constitution. Its principal function is to make recommendations on the basis of equitable sharing of revenue raised nationally between the national and county governments, and, among the county governments.
Reliable statistical data are key to the Commission's functions and is vital for policy formulation and analysis. This edition provides an update of the sumary data and also introduces new data such as (i) HIV data under the health outcomes, (ii) the 1999 population, and (iii) county poplulation growth rate for the period 1999 to 2009. At a glance, the Fact Sheets provide important yet simplified data for each county on: population, health, education and infrastructure. No other single book has ever attempted to provide county-specific data in such a manner.
The data on each of the 47 counties is useful to many stakeholders, including; national and county government political leadership, the executive and other policy makers. It will be useful to development partners, academic institutions and the public service in both national and county governments. The book is part of a series of publications which have been launched by the Commission to provide data that will inform policy formulation and planning under Kenya's new system of devolved government.
Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis (KIPPRA);
This report analyzes the recent performance of the Kenyan economy and provides an assessment of the medium term prospects under different assumptions. The key areas that are analyzed include recent macroeconomic performance, governance, social economic development, and the main sectors of the economy such as agriculture, manufacturing, trade and foreign policy, financial services, tourism, micro and small enterprises, infrastructure and economic services, and environment and natural resources.
The theme of the report is Creating an Enabling Environment for Stimulating Investment for Competitive and Sustainable Counties. This is timely as the implementation of devolution gathers full momentum. The Constitution and the County Governments Act No. 17 of 2012 envisage that the 47 county governments will play an important role in Kenya's economic development. The Kenyan economy is on a strong recovery path, and the medium term prospects are positive, predicated on a smooth transition to devolved governance system, continued implementation of the reform agenda as outlined in the Medium Term Plan and Vision 2030, regional stability and security, favourable weather conditions and a stable global economic environment. Nonetheless, the government will have to enhance capacity and policy flexibility to respond effectively to the changing policy environment.
Government of the Republic of Kenya;
The second Medium Term Plan (MTP) of Vision 2030 identifies key policy actions, reforms, programmes and projects that the Government will implement in the 2013-2017 period in line with its priorities, the Kenya 2010 constitution and the long-term objective of Vision 2030. Accordingly, the theme of this MTP is Transforming Kenya: Pathway to Devolution, Socio-Economic Development, Equity and National Unity.The MTP gives priority to devolution as spelt out in our constitution and to more rapid socio-economic development with equity as a tool for building national unity). The Second MTP also aims to build on the successes of the first MTP (2008-2012), particularly in increasing the scale and pace of economic transformation through infrastructure development, and strategic emphasis on priority sectors under the economic and social pillars of Vision 2030. Under this MTP, transformation of the economy is pegged on rapid economic growth on a stable macro-economic environment, modernisation of our infrastructure, diversification and commercialisation of agriculture, food security, a higher contribution of manufacturing to our GDP, wider access to African and global markets, wider access for Kenyans to better quality education and health care, job creation targeting unemployed youth, provision of better housing and provision of improved water sources and sanitation to Kenyan households that presently lack these. In doing all this, Kenya will pay full attention to securing our environment and building our resilience to climate change. Much of this will be done in collaboration with county governments and new urban management boards as provided for under the constitution and our laws. The overall aim of the plan is that by 2018 Kenyan families will have experienced a positive transformation in their earnings and quality of their livelihoods, and Kenya will be a more united, more prosperous society commanding respect in African and the world.
African Economic Research Consortium;
The paper examines intrahousehold resource allocation in Kenya and if there exists gender bias. The assumption of a unitary household model is relaxed and a collective household model is used. Demographic separability tests are then carried out to identify 'adult goods' i.e. goods that have pure income effect with the addition of a child in the household. The Deaton Model (1997) is then used to examine the behaviour of budget share of adult goods with total expenditure and lastly tests are carried out using the outlay equivalent ratios to establish if there is gender bias within the households. The Kenya Welfare Monitoring Survey Data for 1997 was analysed; alcohol failed to pass the demographic separability test in urban areas, the study however does not find any gender bias using the Deaton (1997) model. The study concludes that there is a need for further research in this area using individual data.
African Economic Research Consortium;
The informal sector has become increasingly important as a source of income and employment in Kenya. This contrasts with the declining performance of the formal sector, and underscores the sector's potential for absorbing the country's increasing labour force as more households become dependent on it. One important attribute of the sector is that it has become a major employer of the female labour force in the country. This study investigated the factors determining the participation of women in informal sector activities given a range of other available labour market options.
The results show that education is one of the important factors determining women's participation in the different categories of the labour market. The study concludes that efforts to address the problem of women's access to the labour market should focus on improving their access to education as one of the important factors for improving their human capital. Given the nature of the informal sector, and the fact that access to the labour market is an outcome of the interaction between demand and supply, addressing female participation in the sector may require addressing the demand side of the Kenyan labour market in addition to the factors expected to explain labour market participation.
African Economic Research Consortium;
This paper examines the relationship between public investment and its financing on private investment in Kenya for the period 1964-2006. Using an error correction framework and time series data for the fiscal years 1964-2006, the study shows that investment in agriculture has a significant positive effect on private investment, while domestic debt has a significant negative effect. Political risk, real exchange rate, external debt, and tax though negatively related are insignificant. Investment in infrastructure has an insignificant positive effect. These findings have important policy implications that investment in agriculture crowds-in private investment. To encourage private investment, the government should channel increased resources to the agricultural sector. Domestic debt crowds-out private investment, thus the government should reduce its dependence on domestic borrowing to finance budget deficit.
World Agroforestry Centre;
This report identifies and assesses climate-smart agricultural practices through participatory appraisal tools with experts and farmers, as part of the MICCA pilot project in Kaptumo, Kenya. The aim is to highlight and add climate-smart practices within the ongoing development programme which aims to integrate climate change adaptation and mitigation with improving livelihoods and productivity of the dairy farming system.
Collective Action and Property Rights (CAPRi);
Safe water is widely recognized as both a fundamental human need and a key input into economic activity. Across the developing world, the typical approach to addressing these needs is to segregate supplies of water for domestic use from water for large-scale agricultural production. In that arrangement, the goal of domestic water supply is to provide small amounts of clean safe water for direct consumption, cleaning, bathing and sanitation, while the goal of agricultural water supply is to provide large amounts of lower quality water for irrigated agriculture. A new third use of water is now being given more attention by researchers: small amounts of water employed in selected household enterprises. This third use may be particularly important for women. There is a potential, therefore, that provision of modest amounts of water to smallholder farmers can enhance household economic production, save labor time for women and girls, and improve family health.
This paper adds to the emerging literature on the multiple values of improved water supplies -- improved health, time savings, and small-scale production for individual farmers and collectives -- for the case of a rural community in the western highlands of Kenya. With minimum external support, two groups in this community have managed to install and operate systems of spring protection and piped water to their members' homesteads. Members of those households, particularly women, have benefited substantially in terms of time savings, health and small-scale production. The experience of this community also illustrates some of the challenges that must be faced for a community to effectively self-organize the investment and maintenance of a communitybased water scheme. There are challenges of finance, gender relations, and conflict over scarce water supplies, group leadership, enforcement of community bi-laws, and policy. Data from a census of springs in the same area show that successful collective action for water management is unusual, but certainly not unique, in this region of Kenya. Although women emerge as the main beneficiaries of improved water management in the community, their substantial contributions are largely hidden behind social norms regarding gender roles and relations. Research methods need to carefully triangulate information sources in order to clarify the very substantial and active roles performed by women. Kenya's water policy should be modified to better recognize and facilitate small-scale community-based water projects.
Malaria in pregnancy (MiP) is a significant contributor to maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality. In malaria-endemic countries, especially those in tropical areas of Africa where there is intense transmission of Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum), malaria infection directly contributes to adverse outcomes in maternal and newborn health. An estimated 11% of neonatal deaths in malariaendemic African countries are due to low birth weight resulting from P. falciparum infections in pregnancy. According to the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) Initiative, malaria accounts for over 10,000 maternal and between 75,000 and 200,000 infant deaths per year in Africa. Prevention of MiP is thus a key public health intervention.