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The underground commercial sex economy (UCSE) generates millions of dollars annually, yet investigation and data collection remain under resourced. Our study aimed to unveil the scale of the UCSE in eight major US cities. Across cities, the UCSE's worth was estimated between $39.9 and $290 million in 2007, but decreased since 2003 in all but two cities. Interviews with pimps, traffickers, sex workers, child pornographers, and law enforcement revealed the dynamics central to the underground commercial sex trade -- and shaped the policy suggestions to combat it.
Funders and program planners want to know: What does it cost to operate a high-quality after-school or summer program? This study answers that question, discovering that there is no "right" number. Cost varies substantially, depending on the characteristics of the participants, the goals of the program, who operates it and where it is located. Based on detailed cost data collected from 111 out-of-school-time programs in six cities, this report, along with an online calculator (www.wallacefoundation.org/cost-of-quality), provides cost averages and ranges for many common types of programs.
Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Community Center of Colorado;
The increased risk for suicidal ideation and attempts among sexual minority youth has been documented in studies using both convenience samples and representative community samples. However, as most youth do not access social services, these studies do not necessarily represent the sexual minority youth that community-based social workers may encounter in their day-today practice. As such, the present study on risk and protective factors related to suicidality surveyed 182 sexual minority youth (ages 14-21) who sought assistance at a community-based social service agency in Denver, CO. Similar to existing literature, the findings suggest that risk factors related to suicidality include hopelessness, methamphetamine use, homelessness, and inschool victimization. However, unlike studies of the general youth population, this study found that African American and male sexual minority youth were not at lower risk of suicidality than sexual minority youth who were, respectively, white or female. Additionally, our findings suggest that the presence of gay-straight alliances in schools may function as a protective resource for sexual minority youth. Implications for social work practice are discussed.
This report is the last in a series funded by The Wallace Foundation and developed by P/PV and The Finance Project to document the costs of out-of-school-time (OST) programs and the city-level systems that support them. The report examines the development of OST systems in six cities across the country and summarizes the strategies and activities commonly pursued, their associated investments and options for financing such system-building efforts. These findings can provide OST stakeholders with critical information to help guide their investments in system planning, start-up and ongoing operations.
The report serves as a companion to two previous resources: The Cost of Quality Out-of-School-Time Programs, which provides information on both the average out-of-pocket expenditures and the average full cost of a wide range of quality OST programs; and an online cost calculator that enables users to generate tailored cost estimates for many different types of OST programs.
Feeding America (formerly America's Second Harvest);
This report presents information on the clients and agencies served by the Food Bank of the Rockies. The information is drawn from a national study, Hunger in America 2006, conducted for America's Second Harvest (A2H), the nation's largest organization of emergency food providers. The national study is based on completed in-person interviews with more than 52,000 clients served by the A2H food bank network, as well as on completed questionnaires from more than 30,000 A2H agencies. The study summarized below focuses mainly on emergency food providers and their clients who are supplied with food by food banks in the A2H network.
Key Findings: The A2H system served by the Food Bank of the Rockies provides food for an estimated 312,400 different people annually. 43% of the members of households served by the Food Bank of the Rockies are children under 18 years old (Table 5.3.2).50% of client households include at least one employed adult (Table 5.7.1). Among client households with children, 77% are food insecure and 43% are experiencing hunger (Table 6.1.1). 45% of clients served by the Food Bank of the Rockies report having to choose between paying for food and paying for utilities or heating fuel (Table 6.5.1). 38% had to choose between paying for food and paying for medicine or medical care (Table 6.5.1). 23% of households served by the Food Bank of the Rockies report having at least one household member in poor health (Table 8.1.1)The Food Bank of the Rockies included approximately 710 agencies at the administration of this survey, of which 461 have responded to the agency survey. Of the responding agencies, 345 had at least one food pantry, soup kitchen, or shelter. 74% of pantries, 76% of kitchens, and 43% of shelters are run by faith-based agencies affiliated with churches, mosques, synagogues, and other religious organizations (Table 10.6.1).54% of pantries, 58% of kitchens, and 52% of shelters of the Food Bank of the Rockies reported that there had been an increase since 2001 in the number of clients who come to their emergency food program sites (Table 10.8.1). Food banks are by far the single most important source of food for the agencies, accounting for 77% of the food used by pantries, 47% of kitchens' food, and 29% of shelters' food (Table 13.1.1). For the Food Bank of the Rockies, 86% of pantries, 83% of kitchens, and 60% of shelters use volunteers (Table 13.2.1).
The Bridges to Work demonstration was designed to test whether efforts to help inner-city job seekers overcome barriers to accessing suburban jobs would result in better employment opportunities and earnings for these workers. This report examines outcomes for more than 1,800 applicants to Bridges to Work, half of whom were randomly selected to receive the programs transportation, job placement and supportive services for up to 18 months and half who were not offered these services. The researchers found that Bridges to Work did not positively impact participants employment and earnings, results that were consistent across cities and across various strategies for providing transportation services. Given the programs implementation challenges, costs and lack of results, the report concludes that the Bridges model is not a viable policy response to the mismatch between the location of jobs and the location of unemployed workers. However, the models lack of success does not diminish the importance of improving transportation options to increase workers access to employment, and the authors derive a number of important lessons from the demonstrations experience to inform future mobility efforts.
Feeding America (formerly America's Second Harvest);
This report presents information on the clients and agencies served by Food Bank of the Rockies. The information is drawn from a national study, Hunger in America 2010, conducted in 2009 for Feeding America (FA) (formerly America's Second Harvest), the nation's largest organization of emergency food providers. The national study is based on completed in-person interviews with more than 62,000 clients served by the FA national network, as well as on completed questionnaires from more than 37,000 FA agencies. The study summarized below focuses on emergency food providers and their clients who are supplied with food by food banks in the FA network.
The FA system served by Food Bank of the Rockies provides emergency food for an estimated 367,000 different people annually.42% of the members of households served by Food Bank of the Rockies are children under 18 years old (Table 5.3.2).43% of households include at least one employed adult (Table 5.7.1).Among households with children, 81% are food insecure and 35% are food insecure with very low food security (Table 18.104.22.168).49% of clients served by Food Bank of the Rockies report having to choose between paying for food and paying for utilities or heating fuel (Table 6.5.1).36% had to choose between paying for food and paying for medicine or medical care (Table 6.5.1).25% of households served by Food Bank of the Rockies report having at least one household member in poor health (Table 8.1.1)Food Bank of the Rockies included approximately 540 agencies at the administration of this survey, of which 485 have responded to the agency survey. Of the responding agencies, 358 had at least one food pantry, soup kitchen, or shelter.73% of pantries, 68% of kitchens, and 50% of shelters are run by faith-based agencies affiliated with churches, mosques, synagogues, and other religious organizations (Table 10.6.1).Among programs that existed in 2006, 79% of pantries, 83% of kitchens, and 62% of shelters of Food Bank of the Rockies reported that there had been an increase since 2006 in the number of clients who come to their emergency food program sites (Table 10.8.1).Food banks are by far the single most important source of food for agencies with emergency food providers, accounting for 79% of the food distributed by pantries, 52% of the food distributed by kitchens, and 45% of the food distributed by shelters (Table 13.1.1).As many as 93% of pantries, 85% of kitchens, and 85% of shelters in Food Bank of the Rockies use volunteers (Table 13.2.1).
The Kettering Foundation studies the problems that keep our democracy from working as it should. One of these is a lack of trust that has eroded confidence in our major institutions, including the public schools. To remedy this problem, federal, state, and local officials have pursued a broad range of reforms aimed at ensuring that the nation's public school system is more accountable.
Most Americans applaud the goals of this accountability movement, and they support some of what it has accomplished. However, new research from the Kettering Foundation and Public Agenda suggests that there are important differences between the way most leaders and most parents define and think about accountability in public education.
This report summarizes this research, which includes focus groups held in Washington, DC; Detroit; New Orleans; Westchester County, NY; Birmingham, AL; and Denver. The report lays out areas of agreement, where leaders and parents see eye-to-eye on accountability, and areas of tension, where the perspectives of leaders and parents part company. Finally, it explores whether it is possible to blend the competing views and poses some questions for the field.
Annie E. Casey Foundation;
This report tells how four tax-preparation programs are breaking the mold and tackling the world of health care enrollment. Readers will learn the challenges and opportunities associated with such a move, which has the potential to help millions of low-income Americans take a critical first step toward a healthier future.
Center on Reinventing Public Education (CRPE);
A growing number of cities now provide a range of public school options for families to choose from. Choosing a school can be one of the most stressful decisions parents make on behalf of their child. Getting access to the right public school will determine their child's future success. How are parents faring in cities where choice is widely available? This report answers this question by examining how parents' experiences with school choice vary across eight "high-choice" cities: Baltimore, Cleveland, Denver, Detroit, Indianapolis, New Orleans, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C. Our findings suggest parents are taking advantage of the chance to choose a non-neighborhood-based public school option for their child, but there's more work to be done to ensure choice works for all families.
As charter schools continue their rapid expansion in America's cities, questions related to equitable access to these schools of choice have jumped to the forefront of the policy conversation. Indeed, the proportion of students in charters with classifications that suggest that they are difficult to educate -- such as students with disabilities, those who are not proficient in English, and those who are eligible for free or reduced-price lunch -- is often substantially below their respective proportions in traditional ("district") public schools.
This paper uses longitudinal data from Denver to measure whether adoption of common enrollment increased the proportion of disadvantaged students enrolled in that city's charter elementary schools. It finds that Denver's adoption of common enrollment substantially increased the proportion of students enrolling in charter kindergartens who are minority, eligible for free/reduced-priced lunch, or speak English as a second language. Importantly, this paper considers only one specific effect of common enrollment on the charter-school sector. While policymakers should take a more expansive measure of the merits of common enrollment before adopting it, this paper suggests that an effective way to boost disadvantaged students' enrollment in charters is to make applying to them easier.
Center for Neighborhood Technology;
This report examines the impacts of transportation spending on households in the 28 metro areas for which the federal government collects expenditure data and of rising gas prices on both households and regional economies. It finds that households in regions that have invested in public transportation reap financial benefits from having access to affordable mobility options, even as gas prices rise, and that regions with public transit are losing less per household from the increase in gas prices than those without transit options.