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Public Citizen's Global Trade Watch;
A Special Report By Public Citizen's Global Trade Watch and Critical Mass Energy and Environment Program. A review of U.S. government "system" audits of five nations (Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Australia and Canada) reveals that the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)'s Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) deemed "equivalent" systems with sanitary measures that differ from FSIS policy, and in some cases, violate the express language of U.S. laws and regulations. Because FSIS has refused to respond to Public Citizen Freedom of Information Act requests for correspondence and other documentation regarding these equivalency decisions, it is impossible to determine what is the current status of these issues and whether they have been resolved by regulators. - The U.S. law requiring meat to be inspected by independent government officials was violated by Brazil and Mexico and they retained their eligibility to export to the United States. - The USDA's zero tolerance policy for contamination by feces was repeatedly violated by Australia, Canada and Mexico. - U.S. regulations requiring monthly supervisory reviews of plants eligible to export be conducted on behalf of USDA by foreign government officials were violated by Argentina, Brazil, Canada and Mexico, several of whom are seeking to avoid this core requirement of U.S. regulation. Monthly reviews are vitally important to remind the meat industry that the meat inspector who works the line in the plant is backed by the weight of the government and to double-check the work of meat inspectors on a regular basis. - Even though U.S. regulations requiring that a government official -- not a company employee -- sample meat for salmonella microbial contamination, the USDA approved company employees performing this task as part of an equivalency determination with Brazil and Canada. - Even though U.S. regulations require certain microbial testing to be performed at government labs, the U.S. approved testing by private labs as part of the equivalency determination with Brazil, Canada and Mexico. - Unapproved and/or improper testing procedures and sanitation violations have been re-identified by FSIS year after year for Australia, Brazil, Canada and Mexico, but the countries have retained their eligibility to export to the United States. - After its regulatory systems was designated "equivalent," Mexico began using alternative procedures for salmonella and E. coli that had never been evaluated by FSIS, yet the country retained its eligibility to import to the United States. - Australia and Canada were allowed to export to the United States while using their own methods and procedures for such matters as E. coli testing, postmortem inspection, monthly supervisory reviews and pre-shipment reviews while awaiting an equivalency determination from FSIS. - FSIS auditors and Canadian food safety officials continue to disagree about whether particular measures have already been found "equivalent" by FSIS, yet Canadian imports remained uninterrupted. - The regulatory systems of Brazil and Mexico have been rated equivalent even though the countries plead insufficient personnel and monetary resources to explain their inability to carry out all required functions.
Plataforma por um Novo Marco Regulatório para as Organizações da Sociedade;
A cartilha apresenta um histórico da aprovação da nova lei, apontando os ganhos da sociedade civil e os problemas que ainda precisam ser enfrentados e dá dicas para a adaptação das Organizações da Sociedade Civil (OSCs) às novas exigências. Além disso, traz também os pontos prioritários da Plataforma para novas mudanças legislativas, entre elas a criação de fundos de fomento para pequenas organizações, simplificação tributária para OSCs e a criação de mecanismos de incentivo para doações individuais.
Worldwide Initiatives for Grantmaker Support (WINGS);
El concepto de inversión social privada (ISP) ha tomado fuerza en los últimos años, sobre todo en Argentina, Brasil y Colombia, y se ha instalado como guía en el mundo fundacional y empresarial. El predominio conceptual de la ISP se logró,en general, contraponiéndolo a la filantropía, otorgándole grandes virtudes a la primera y muchas limitaciones a esta última. Solo recientemente la filantropía está empezando a recuperar un valor positivo, e incluso en algunos casos, a ser entendida con el significado que suele darle una gran parte de la comunidad internacional.
Center for Civil Society Studies at Johns Hopkins Institute for Policy Studies;
A "global associational revolution," a major upsurge of organized, private, voluntary and nonprofit activity, has been under way around the world for the past thirty years or more. Despite the scale and scope of this development, however, official data to portray it have long been lacking. This report takes an important step toward remedying this situation by presenting a summary of new findings from the implementation b statistical offices in sixteen countries of the United Nations "Handbook on Nonprofit Institutions in the System of National Accounts".
Developed by the Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies in cooperation with the UN Statistics Division and an International Technical Experts Group, and issued by the U.N. in 2003, this Handbook calls on national statistical offices to produce regular "satellite accounts" on nonprofit institutions and volunteering for the first time, and provides detailed guidance on how to do so. The result is a far more complete official picture of the scope and structure of the nonprofit or civil societ sector than has ever been available in these countries.
This report presents the findings from the implementation of this UN NPI Handbook in 16 countries aound the world, including data on the comparative workforce, contribution to GDP, expenditures, revenues, and distribution of activities, and an in-depth look at the advantages off the Handbook approach over the traditional SNA methods of measurement.
It is our hope that this report will help to encourage civil society and foundation leaders, volunteer promotion organizations, and statistical offices in other countries to promote the implementation of the UN NPI Handbook in their countries. The result will be to make the nonprofit and volunteer sector more visible, enhance its credibility, enable more effective partnerships between NPIs and public and private institutions, open new research opportunities for scholars, improve the clarity with which national accounts statistics portray national economies, and ultimately to improve citizen well-being.
Global Greengrants Fund;
The Brazilian case study synthesises a decade of global greengrant funds' experience with small grants in the country. It describes what strategies have worked well, what kinds of impacts have been observed, as well as broad trends and challenges. The study seeks to illustrate how small grants have promoted social change and helped build the capacity of the Brazilian environmental movement over the past ten years.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) - Development Centre;
While there is little reliable or quantifiable data on philanthropic flows toward development, end even less on flows targeting youth, this study provides a qualitative analysis of the ways foundations work to empower young people in developing countries. It brings together case studies from 11 foundations supporting youth and offers insights on the uniqueness of the philanthropic approach to youth empowerment. It is not meant to be an exhaustive study of the entire landscape of foundations that work with young people. Rather, it provides new research and evidence-based examples from a sample of foundations that have pioneered particularly innovative approaches.
Hauser Institute For Civil Society at Harvard Kennedy School;
Séculos de tradições religiosas, normas culturais, histórias políticas e condições econômicas moldaram o ambiente atual para doações e investimentos sociais privados na América Latina. Embora as pessoas com patrimônio elevado da região tenham uma longa história de fazer doações à caridade, o surgimento relativamente recente de democracias estáveis, o crescimento econômico firme e a acumulação de patrimônio pessoal criaram as bases para uma maior atividade filantrópica. Ao mesmo tempo, cortes nos serviços públicos, as desigualdades e a pobreza persistente em alguns países ressaltaram a necessidade de investimentos sociais privados, para alavancar o desenvolvimento social e econômico.
Este estudo descreve o ambiente filantrópico e ilustra os importantes e inspiradores investimentos sociais de pessoas com patrimônio elevado em seis países da América Latina; Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colômbia, México e Peru. Ele dá novas percepções sobre a alma e a prática de filantropia na região e, em termos otimistas, ajudará a encorajar outras pessoas a investirem capital filantrópico privado para o bem público.
Siglos de tradiciones religiosas, normas culturales, historias políticas y condiciones económicas han moldeado el entorno actual de la filantropía privada y la inversión social en América Latina. Si bien las personas de alto nivel patrimonial de la región tienen una larga trayectoria de donaciones benéficas, el surgimiento relativamente reciente de democracias estables, crecimiento económico y acumulación de riqueza personal han sentado las bases para la aceleración de las actividades filantrópicas. Al mismo tiempo, en algunos países, las reducciones en los servicios gubernamentales, la desigualdad severa y la pobreza persistente han recalcado la necesidad de inversión social privada para la promoción del desarrollo social y económico.
Este estudio describe el entorno filantrópico y las importantes e inspiradoras inversiones sociales de las personas de alto nivel patrimonial en seis países latinoamericanos: Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, México y Perú. También ofrece una mirada nueva al alma y al ejercicio de la filantropía en la región, con la esperanza de que sirva para alentar a otros a invertir capital filantrópico privado en el bien común.
Hauser Institute For Civil Society at Harvard Kennedy School;
Centuries of religious traditions, cultural norms, political histories, and economic conditions have shaped today's environment for private giving and social investment in Latin America. While the region's wealthy individuals have a long history of charitable giving, the relatively recent emergence of stable democracies, steady economic growth, and accumulation of personal wealth have provided a foundation for accelerated philanthropic activity. At the same time, cutbacks in government services, acute inequalities, and persistent poverty in some countries have underscored the need for private social investment to help address social and economic development.
This study describes the philanthropic environment and illuminates the important and inspirational social investments of wealthy individuals in six Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. It provides new insight into both the soul and practice of philanthropy in the region, and, optimistically, will help to encourage others to invest private philanthropic capital for the common public good.
Charles Stewart Mott Foundation;
The practice of community philanthropy, has witnessed a growing momentum internationally, as new forms of community solidarity models emerge at the local level. Because of their informal nature, it is difficult for some of these initiatives to grow or survive over time The global movement for community philanthropy offers a number of models for creating and sustaining community foundations which are owned and controlled from the 'bottom up.' Communities identify their own needs and objectives, and then work together to gather the needed resources internally -- whether in cash or in-kind -- to invest in the cause. This publication will shed light on this important practice and how it has contributed to more lasting and impactful results.
Center for Civil Society Studies at Johns Hopkins Institute for Policy Studies;
Drawing on the findings of the Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project, this report provides a broad overview of the civil society sector in countries spanning all six inhabited continents and includes just-released data on developing countries in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. The report provides a comparative overview of the civil society sector in 35 countries; analyzes the scope, size, composition, and financing of the sector, including new data on nonprofit employment, volunteering, expenditures, and revenues; examines geographic patterns and characteristics of the nonprofit sector; and presents data in dozens of easy-to-read charts.
Global Alliance for Community Philanthropy;
What makes the global spread of community philanthropy organizations so exciting is the variety of forms they take, adaptations to different local contexts, challenges, resources, and leaders. The core similarities matter -- all in some way help geographic communities mobilize financial and other kinds of capital for improvement of the lives of residents. But so do the differences. Some have endowments, some don't. Some are large, more are small. Some call themselves community foundations, others do not. This diversity is one sign of community philanthropy's flexibility, potential, and rising popularity.
But it also presents a challenge to those who want to better understand and support community philanthropy, especially on a global level. A practice so varied, so organic and tied to local conditions, complicates classification, resists general conclusions, and calls for lots of learning through example. A movement relatively young and quickly evolving, with a limited body of applied research, requires ongoing documentation and study.
The case studies presented here provide intriguing snapshots of locally driven development in communities across the globe.