This background paper was prepared as part of the Mastercard Foundation's Secondary Education in Africa (SEA) initiative. The study was conducted by the African Population and Health Research Center's (APHRC) Education and Youth Empowerment (EYE) unit.The study was a desk review that relied on secondary data, and organizing and synthesizing available information on OOSY. A literature search focusing on SSA was conducted using academic databases and grey literature to find information on as many models as possible. The literature was synthesized into key features in alternative provision of education and training for OOSY and pathways back to formal education... A total of 190 articles that met the set criteria were retrieved and 66 of these were included in the review. More than 15 project reports (grey literature) were accessed online and used to develop case studies.... Additionally, the short case studies were enriched through telephone and Skype interviews with program staff and relevant senior government officers.