In the early 1950s, Professor C.A.W. Manning, now into the third decade of his tenure as head of the department of international relations (IR) at the London School of Economics (LSE), was at something of turning point in his career. Having been at the forefront of studies of international affairs in the U.K. before the war, recently things had not been going so well. Some work for Chatham House during the war had ended rather disastrously without publication. Manning had been a leading light of the British branch of the International Studies Conference (ISC), the League-era international organization of academic international relations, but this was now stumbling to its demise. Furthermore, his native South Africa was in the process of alienating itself from the international community and the Commonwealth in particular through its adoption of apartheid.