After the first World War, Rockefeller philanthropies extended their activities to Eastern Europe, including Hungary. Their support significantly contributed to the improvement of public health in Hungary, a field which had remained backward even during the vigorous economic development of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy in the latter 1800s. Indeed, the Rockefeller Foundation helped to establish various public health institutions in Czechoslovakia, Poland, Yugoslavia and attempted to take some initial steps to do the same in other countries in the area, like Bulgaria and Rumania. The outlines of this RF project have been given in an earlier paper by Paul Weindling. The motives of the RF, however, remained largely unknown.