David Duncan Main was one of the most famous missionaries in China in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, at a time when China was experiencing tremendous social turmoil. He dedicated forty-five years of his life to medical service in China. He grew up in Scotland, where he was born at Kirkmichael in 1856, and where he studied medicine and 2 business at Glasgow and Edinburgh. He joined the evangelistic revival movement in 1873, and set out on the path of medical missionary work after meeting another missionary. In 1881, he and his wife, Florence Nightingale Smith, left for Hangzhou (or Hangchow), the capital city of Zhejiang Province in southeast China, under the auspices of the Church Missionary Society. Hangzhou is usually described as "Heaven Below" in China because of its great beauty and prosperity.