Between 1965 and 1976, more than 700 rural leaders participated in one of four statewide public affairs leadership development programs. These programs were conducted by educational institutions in Pennsylvania, California, Michigan, and Montana. The W. K. Kellogg Foundation provided over $4 million in financial assistance. The programs were designed to: increase participation in public affairs by men and women from rural areas; improve problem-solving and leadership skills of participants; and encourage sponsoring educational institutions to expand their extension programs in the areas of public affairs education and rural leadership developent. The question that concerned educational policymakers and led to and guided this study was: How did these programs affect the participants and the involved institutions? This summary booklet is organized around four case studies. Chapter I provides an analytical review of both past and current assessments of the four statewide leadership development programs. Chapters II through V discuss the programs and findings of the projects conducted in Pennsylvania, California, Michigan,and Montana. The final chapter (VI) presents the results of a multivariate analysis of the outcomes and includes a discussion of the lessons learned as a result of conducting the study.