Today, it is common for employers to look at job applicants' personal credit history before making a hiring decision. A wide range of positions, from high-level financial posts to jobs doing maintenance work, offering telephone tech support, working as a delivery driver or selling frozen yogurt, may require a credit check. Yet despite their prevalence, little is known about what credit checks actually reveal to employers, what the consequences are for job applicants, or employment credit checks' overall impact on our society. This report uses new data from Demos' 2012 National Survey on Credit Card Debt in Low- and Middle- Income Households to address these questions. Overall, we find substantial evidence that employment credit checks constitute an illegitimate barrier to employment.