This study aims to provide evidence for decision making on future options for sustainable sanitation development, focusing on the selection of economically viable technology options, as well as efficient delivery modes. It demonstrates the benefits associated with sanitation, particularly in the less developed and rural parts of China, and the importance of sanitation in promoting economic development.
- All sanitation options had a highly favorable economic return, but they all experienced a drop in performance under actual program conditions.
- The economic returns on all improved sanitation options were significant in all the sites evaluated when compared with no access to basic sanitation.
- A high proportion of disease cases and disease burden overall was in the under five population. Households with one or more young children had higher health returns from improved sanitation and hygiene practices than household with no young children.
- The avoided cost of moving from open defecation to basic sanitation for rural households was about $280 per household per year.
- Other benefits from improved sanitation included water, time saved, excreta reuse, and other intangible benefits.