The One Million Initiative aims for 70% of the population using safe drinking water and 50% using improved sanitation in 18 districts in three provinces of central Mozambique. This paper evaluates health effects of the initiative using a panel survey, analyzing the contributions of latrine ownership, hand washing, and use of improved water sources to health. It is unique in providing rigorous evaluation of such a large scale WASH program. The authors find a large impact of CLTS on adults and older children, and a similar impact in improved water sources on health of young children.
- Kind of Study: panel survey
- Sample Size: 1,600 households from 80 communities in 9 districts interviewed in each of 2 survey rounds
- Timing of Study: 2008-2010
- CLTS training convinced around 21% of households who would not have otherwise built a latrine to do so. More than 95% of adults, and around two thirds of children, from households with a latrine also use it.
- CLTS training had no significant effect on hand washing with soap or ash.
- Use of an improved water source increased by approximately 34 percentage points overall, but the effect is almost entirely eliminated among households more than a kilometer away from a source.
- The water point intervention had a substantial health impact on children under 3, decreasing the variable measuring waterborne disease by 14 percentage points.
- CLTS reduced the probability of a household member being affected by waterborne disease by 8 percentage points.