It has been more than 40 years since closing, or relocation of many industrial jobs within the inner cities of America. These developments had a supremely devastating effect on African American's (especially males) ability to be gainfully employed and earn a livable wage. However, since this time many African Americans have entered college and are earning degrees in an effort to be more competitive in the global economy. In 2008, approximately 17% of African Americans held a Bachelor's degree or higher. Blacks are attaining economic growth and professional opportunities like never before and the growth of the Black middle class seems quite promising for the future of Black America. Nevertheless, despite thehopeful outlook for some, there still remains a significantly large segment of Black Americans who are having their economic opportunities curtailed or are effectively closed off from economic mobility altogether.