Eighty percent of spills and accidents in all industries, including oil and gas, are estimated to be caused by human error. Additionally, the Arctic Ocean presents an array of hazardous operating conditions. In the Arctic, dangerous conditions could include gale force winds, extreme fog, prolonged periods of darkness, shifting sea ice and sub-zero temperatures. When multiple risk factors combine, accidents are even more likely to occur. An increase in oil exploration and production will create oil spill risks from offshore platforms, associated pipelines, storage tanks and shipping activities. At the same time, changing sea ice conditions are opening new shipping routes and extending the season for existing routes. Increasing vessel traffic will only add to the potential risk of oil spills beyond the oil and gas industry.