Family permanence can substantially improve the chances for future success of all vulnerable children who come into contact with America's child welfare system. Family permanence ultimately can reduce the numbers of youth who enter care as well as those who "age out" of foster care without a family. Change will require new practices, adequate and fl exible funding, improved incentives for systems and individual families, and redefi ned goals and measures of accountability for policy makers and practitioners. Permanence is both a value and a goal of practice. For youth in state care to become successful and emotionally healthy in adulthood, they must leave the foster care system in a planned manner that connects them to a lifelong family.