Part I of this paper first reviews the spread of LTUs, and briefly describes the experience of LTUs in a few selected countries. This section takes up the question of the LTU as an enclave administrative reform versus semi-autonomous revenue agencies and "whole of government" reform involving broad based wages, human resources planning and anti-corruption measures.
Part II examines the emergence of the LTU and its relationships to the remainder of the tax administration system in different kinds of developing and transition economies, such as (i)capable developing states, (ii) administratively weak but governance improving states, and (iii)captured states. The relative success of LTUs can improve our understanding of the enclave approach to governance reforms as well as yielding insights that are intrinsic to the challenge of improving revenue mobilization. LTUs and their roles in developing country economies can also be interpreted through the prism of recent revisionist writings on best policies for the tax mix in the presence of a major informal sector and a government sector with a highly constrained taxing capacity and high vulnerability to corruption.
Working Paper Number 04-44.