Many working landscapes throughout the American West are in transition. From the 1950s through the late 1980s in parts of the American West, the wood products industry was an important economic driver, woven into the social and cultural fabric of many rural communities—particularly communities near national forests. In the last two decades, policy changes on federal forests have de-emphasized wood fiber production and have shifted toward diversifying forest structure and habitat, initially with the goal of maintaining old-growth habitat but later with an emerging and sometimes controversial emphasis on creating fire-resilient forests and landscapes and restoring ecosystem functions. These changes led to declining timber harvests in the 1990s and 2000s. The decline in wood harvests from federal forests affected the region's timber supply chain and dramatically altered the economic foundations of communities that depend on working, forested lands. At the same time, populations, settlements, and new housing are increasing in many of these historically resource dependent areas because they are often in desirable, scenic places. Many forest community residents have transitioned from those who were financially dependent on timber harvests to retirees, second-home buyers, amenity seekers, and others who value the forest more for its aesthetic properties and investment potential than as a main source of economic livelihood. The shiftfrom heavy reliance on commodity timber production, particularly on federal forestlands, has transformed theways in which forests are perceived, valued, and managed. This shift has created a tension between the "OldWest," where residents still value the landscape as a source of economic production and cultural identity, and the "New West," in which natural amenities and wilderness play more important roles.