According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the percentage of public school students who are Englishlanguage learners (ELLs) was, at last count, 13 percent in primary schools, 7 percent in middle schools, and 5 percent in high schools. And this ELL population will likely double in the coming years. In fact, some demographers predict that by 2030 the ratio of ELL students to non-ELL students could be one in four. Meanwhile, the nation's poorest schools—those serving a population at least 75 percent lowincome students—along with the whole state of California already serve that high a proportion of ELLs.
In the pages that follow, we endeavor to describe how these expanded learning opportunities take shape in three schools that have significantly expanded learning time for all students. Though the schools have each adopted their own specific means of supporting ELL students, they share many ommon practices, and, not incidentally, an overall approach of carefully identifying individual student needs and, then, applying the educational resources necessary to meet those needs. We have selected these schools from among the over 60 schools in the NCTL network—a group of schools forwhich we have, in recent years, provided technical assistance coaching to plan and implement an expanded school day.