For much of the last half century fisheries managers have grappled with what is needed to achieve effective fisheries governance. It is argued that the factors that determine the success or otherwise of fisheries management tend to be so location-specific that it is not possible to offer a general prescription for improving fisheries management. While this is true, it is possible to identify certain issues that generally appear to have a determining impact on the success or otherwise of fisheries management. In a study commissioned for the ACP Fish II Feasibility Study Report (2003), 50 case-studies were analysed and issues were identified as having an impact on fisheries management performance. The issues that emerged from the study can be divided into policy and governance issues. The first set are identified as policy issues. They are those that provide the framework or process underpinning governance or, put differently, the context of fisheries management. The second set of issues is labelled governance issues because they include the fisheries management system per seand have an impact on the fisheries management mechanism.