The Environmental and Energy Study Institute held a Congressional Briefing to examine ways to protect and enhance the health and well-being of the youngest and oldest members of society through improvements in the way our communities and transportation systems are designed. Mobility for the young and old is especially limited in the United States due to our heavy reliance on personal automobiles. Several major health problems, including obesity, asthma, and social isolation, are exacerbated by our overdependence on this single mode of transportation and the spread-out land-use patterns that developed around the automobile. The briefing highlighted the need to provide alternatives to the car, including transit, walking, and other options as well as to support the use of such modes through improved community design. Briefing speakers described transportation and land use policies and programs that could help to alleviate health problems and better address the needs of youth and the elderly.