A recently completed report on The Political Economy of Natural Resource Use: Lessons for Fisheries Reform consolidates existing knowledge on the political economy of natural resource use. Because of its traditional focus on regulatory approaches the fisheries sector has been slow to apply the lessons from the well established literature on the political economy of property rights. The report draws attention to the tremendous opportunities available for improving the chances for successful fisheries reform across a broad spectrum of countries. Political economy challenges and fishery-specific pathways for establishing rights-based reforms must be closely linked to achieve success in building sustainable wealth in fisheries. This document briefly addresses key issues explored in that report.