This report provides an overview of the role of professional social workers in relation to children without parental care (CWPC). It outlines the approaches to and the functions of social work across resource constrained countries found in a literature review and through consultations with EveryChild and its global partners. From this study the report provides a typology of the range of approaches to social work that have been developed and implemented in relation to CWPC and the requirements for each of these. The typology is designed to support analysis and strategy development in relation to social work and help to answer the question, what role is social work playing and how can this be improved? We hope that this analysis will enable consideration of how best to respond to the challenges for social work and the possibility of learning between countries and regions.