During my two-week stay at the Rockefeller Archive Center in August 2006 I made substantial progress on my research for a project titled "Modernity, Development and the Transnationalization of Social Sciences in Latin America: The Cases of Argentina and Brazil (1930-1970)". The purpose of this project is to analyze the origins and evolution of modern social science in two Latin American countries in a comparative perspective, focusing in particular on how the social sciences contributed to shaping a new concept of modernity. A central aspect of the project consists in analyzing the role of American foundations in the development, modernization and "Americanization" of the social sciences in Argentina and Brazil. More specifically, during my research at the RAC, I focused on how modernity was defined; how the foundations set up a network of reliable "native contacts" to provide information about applicants, projects and institutions; the impact of the foundations in the establishment of research agendas; and 1 the interaction between "global" and local research styles and traditions. What follows is a very preliminary report of some of my findings at the RAC.