During the 1990s, more than 1.3 million people left New York City for nearby suburbs and other parts of the country while 1.2 million immigrants arrived. Due largely in part to immigration, New York City's population turnover in the 1990s was almost double the average for the nation's 100 largest cities. In 2000, 45% of New York City's adult population was foreign born. This paper, published by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, provides a close look at the city's newest foreign-born residents. It shows that they are a very diverse group, with marked differences in education level, English language fluency, and other characteristics that help determine labor market skills and performance.