This document was part of the Multicultural Philanthropy Project, funded by the W.K. Kellogg Foundation. A series of fourteen guides examine the ways in which various gender, ethnic, cultural, religious and racial groups use their gifts of time, money, and talent. They reflect the ways giving and voluntarism are embedded in American life and challenge the notion that philanthropy is the exclusive province of elites. The guides include discussion topics, research questions, and literature overviews with annotated bibliographies. They were developed both to integrate the study of philanthropy into the curricula at colleges and universities, and to provide a tool to nonprofit professionals in the area of development and fundraising. Each volume provides background information on a selected community that will help practitioners work effectively with these groups. Scholars have used the lens of philanthropy to look at such diverse issues as civil society, liberal reform, public culture and the growth of the state. This volume looks closely at the organization of time and money for the public benefit, in one aspect of the philanthropic universe: the Protestant elite who rose to great wealth in the Gilded Age and the institutions they founded at the beginning of the twentieth century. The volume is intended for those interested in acquiring a greater understanding of the history and influence of the large foundations of the 20th century. It is particularly useful in delineating how the strategic use of philanthropic dollars led to the creation of elite institutions, which helped shape public discourse. It includes an annotated bibliography and bibliographic essays, providing insight into the motivations and objectives of the large foundations, the kinds of programs they funded and what they hoped to accomplish. By delineating the successes and limitations of foundation activities, the guide provides historical context for those working with foundations today.