This iteration of the Joint Montoring Programme's annual update report presents estimates for 1990-2012 of improved drinking water and sanitation coverage globally, based on data from nationally representative household surveys and censuses. It reveals that by 2012, 116 countries had met the Millennium Development Goal target for drinking water and 77 had met the MDG target for sanitation. Yet it also
highlights stark disparities across regions, between urban andrural areas, and between the rich and the poor and marginalized.
- By the end of 2012, 89% of the global population used improved drinking water sources, a rise of 13 percentage points in 22 years or 2.3 billion people.
- By the end of 2012, 64% of the global population used improved sanitation facilities, a rise of 15 percentage points since 1990.
- Although declining across all regions, open defecation is practiced by 1 billion people, 82% of whom live in 10 countries.
- Wealthy people universally have higher access to sanitation than the poor. In some countries this gap is narrowing. The gap is increasing, however, in rural areas of countries with low coverage and for marginalized and excluded groups.
- 748 million people--90% living in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia (43% in Sub-Saharan Africa, and 47% in Asia)--still use unimproved drinking water sources; 82% live in rural areas.