A substantial and growing body of research indicates that race/ethnicity -- independent of clinical and socioeconomic factors -- continues to matter in the U.S. health care system. Racial/ethnic background continues to affect access to health care and the quality of care obtained. While the evidence varies for specific conditions and racial/ethnic minority groups, the data are sufficiently compelling to begin undertaking actions to systematically and aggressively eliminate disparities in needed medical care. As major decision-makers in health care, physicians have a key role to play when it comes to addressing disparities in medical care. As a first step in what ultimately must be a multifaceted effort, The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation and The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation are undertaking an initiative to raise physician awareness about disparities in medical care, beginning with cardiac care. This report, developed by the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation and the American College of Cardiology Foundation, assesses the weight of the evidence on racial/ethnic differences in cardiac care.