Objective: To determine why sexually experienced males and females from multiple countries in sub-Saharan Africa do not use condoms.
Methods: We used data from sample surveys conducted in eight countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Respondents were asked about their use of condoms and their reasons for not using a condom in last sex with a marital, a regular (non-marital) or a casual partner. Respondents' reasons for not using a condom are shown by type of partner and by gender.
Results: Males and females most frequently reported trusting their partner as the main reason for not using a condom in last sex with a marital or a regular (non-marital) partner. This suggests that low personal risk perception is the most important reason for not using a condom with a marital or a regular partner. A dislike of condoms is the most frequently cited reason for not using a condom with a casual partner. Respondents rarely cited the price of condoms as a barrier to condom use. Lack of condom availability was also rarely cited as a reason for not using a condom, except to some degree by males in casual partnerships. The latter may be because of the unplanned nature of casual sex activity, rather than because condoms are not available.
Conclusions: Behavior change campaigns encouraging sexually experienced people to accurately assess their personal risk of acquiring HIV should be complemented with marketing campaigns emphasizing the positive attributes of condoms.