A generous grant-in-aid furnished by the Rockefeller Archive Center (RAC) in the summer of 2014 enabled me to pursue research at the repository on the following questions. The first question is about the interaction of diverse medical cultures with the China Medical Board (CMB), a division of the Rockefeller Foundation (RF). When the CMB formally entered China in 1914, Western medicine had already come to the country through multiple channels. One significant pathway was for Chinese students to receive their training in Japanese medical schools, a pattern begun right after Japan defeated China in 1895. The returning Chinese medical doctors -- who had been in some ways influenced by a German medical outlook in Japan -- had already occupied important positions in the government medical administration and in various newly built national medical schools. The question I ask is, how did CMB personnel in the field deal with these students and their multiple foreign, but non-American, influences?