The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative value of the female condom for HIV prevention within heterosexual relationships in the developing world. In the last ten years, the world has witnessed both historic financial commitments to HIV/AIDS and new prevention options, including biomedical prevention research, male circumcision, and a dramatic scale-up of voluntary counseling and testing. At the same time, where HIV remains at epidemic levels in many countries, there has been a growing commitment to treatment access alongside prevention programs. However, portions of populations, particularly youth and women, remain highly vulnerable to HIV infection. Accordingly, the global health community can benefit from a better understanding of how existing prevention options should be effectively and efficiently delivered to reduce HIV in the developing world. This report provides guidance for the global health community for considering how the female condom fits within the set of prevention interventions currently available.