Examines the rise in school suspensions; their effectiveness; the widening racial/ethnic discipline gap, especially for African-American boys; and the impact of suspensions on academic success and likelihood of incarceration. Makes policy recommendations.
- Observation: Trends over time indicate an increase in suspension rates for Black males and females that far exceeds that of Hispanic or White males or females
- Observation: Discipline data should be collected annually for all schools and districts in order to help bring the issue of suspension to the forefront of education discussions
- Observation: Schools and districts with high suspension rates should be identified and assisted to help reduce the removal of students and improve school climate and safety
- Observation: The role of discrimination, whether intentional or not, in determining who gets suspended is a topic that warrants further investigation
- Challenge: The available data suggest that disciplinary removal from school has negative effects on student outcomes and the learning climate