This article analyzes the Ebro inter-basin transfer, which was the main project of the Spanish National Hydrological Plan. The Ebro transfer was prompted by pervasive pressures, scarcity and degradation of Southeastern basins in Spain. The heated policy debate on the Ebro transfer, highlights the difficulties of achieving a sustainable water management, because of the conflicting interests of stakeholders and regions. Alternatives to the Ebro transfer show that, acceptable outcomes combine demand and supply measures. Nevertheless, implementation could be difficult and requires compensation to farmers, otherwise an excessive burden on farmers would be met by social opposition leading to the failure of measures.