This report provides an overview and critical assessment of the ways in which multinational pharmaceutical companies currently participate in expanding economic opportunities in developing countries. As pharmaceutical companies become more involved in both business and philanthropic activities in developing countries, it will be important for each company to identify the best strategies available to it to create new economic opportunities and to leverage the benefits of activities already underway. While the primary focus of the industry is, and will most likely continue to be, on increasing access to health care, the potential for expanding economic opportunities through its activities should not be overlooked as a significant outcome. The analysis and case studies contained in the report highlight companies' contributions to economic opportunity expansion through job creation, training and capacity building, and shaping public policy. The report also offers recommendations for future work to increase economic opportunities. This paper is part of the Economic Opportunity Series published by the CSR Initiative at Harvard University Kennedy School.