This paper is the result of a joint effort of OECD/DAC and LenCD to assemble the critical messages about training and learning that are emerging from the current international scrutiny of training and capacity development. It attempts to synthesise current wisdom on the topic, and to offer a sense of direction on where the debate is going, particularly in terms of approaches to capacity development interventions at country and field levels. It does not, however, address detailed implications at the implementation level. The paper is written primarily for the demand side, i.e. those in the South who request and / or are beneficiaries of capacity development activities, together with Northern donor institutions who commission and pay for the activities. It is intended to give this audience the latest information on training and learning for capacity development, as guidance to help them know what to expect in terms of best practice. For example, it can be of practical assistance to managers and technicians who face the challenge of developing capacity in sector-based or thematic development strategies and work plans. However, it also can be of benefit to donors who need or want to make their approaches as effective as possible.