"U.S. Foundation Funding for Australia", the first report of its kind, is part of a larger project involving the United States Studies Centre at the University of Sydney, Philanthropy Australia, and Foundation Center. A primary goal of this partnership is to improve awareness and understanding in Australia of the U.S. philanthropic sector, while also strengthening philanthropic ties between the two countries and demonstrating the value of transparency within the not-for-profit sector. In the current report, we examine the priorities of U.S. foundation funding to organizations located in Australia, as well as funding for organizations supporting causes in Australia. The quantitative analysis is based on grantmaking data from among the largest U.S. foundations. The report also presents perspectives of U.S. and Australian funders on the current role of philanthropy in Australia, specific challenges and opportunities, and what is needed to achieve greater impact.