In this review, the Water and Sanitation Program of the World Bank identifies commonalities and differences across sanitation market research studies it has conducted in eight countries since 2006 to determine factors that affect sanitation behaviors. Three specific behaviors -- open defecation, acquisition of toilets, and improvement of latrines -- are covered.
- Access and availability, product attributes, and social norms were found to influence rural sanitation behaviors.
- Emotional, social, and physical drivers were important to improved sanitation behaviors in several countries. This includes comfort, privacy, embarrassment, and social status.
- Sanctions and enforcement, beliefs and attitudes, and values were found to be influences in certain situations, but were not addressed in enough studies to conclude whether they are relevant across countries.
- Improving knowledge around the actual cost of latrines and comparing the costs with other household items can serve to encourage latrine adoption.
- Events such as a wedding or welcoming guests may raise the priority of a home latrine above other demands on household resources. Promoting latrine purchases or improvement around these times could increase uptake.