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American Council on Education;
This issue brief summarizes results from a series of surveys evaluating U.S. voters' attitudes and perceptions regarding international students. Three iterations of the survey were administered in March 2017, December 2019, and February 2021 in partnership with the Winston Group and with support from the Charles Koch Foundation.Key findings from the surveys include:A clear majority of those surveyed believe international students make significant academic and diplomatic contributions and have a positive impact on domestic peers.For example, 58 percent of respondents indicated they believe that "international students are valuable additions to campuses because they bring intellectual talent and energy to campuses."The belief that students from abroad "take seats" from U.S. students persists; however, there is growing confidence in international students' academic qualifications and preparedness.There is prevailing sentiment that international students should be "encouraged" to study in the United States. However, there is a lack of support for a concerted effort to grow the number of international students here.There is support for international students remaining in the U.S. after completing their studies.Overall impressions of the favorability of international students have not diminished since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic; however, there is interest in ensuring that incoming international students—and all travelers from abroad—do not spread the virus.Though a minority view, there is some level of concern that international students are improperly vetted or do not adhere to visa regulations.When it comes to policy implications, the issue brief recommends actions for policymakers to take to strengthen and restore international student enrollment to pre-pandemic levels, and to facilitate institutions' ability to enroll the number of students they can effectively support.The issue brief also pulls from ACE's 2021 report Toward Greater Inclusion and Success: A New Compact for International Students to make recommendations for refining campus practices.
The Wallace Foundation;
Over the past 25 years, the number of assistant principals has been steadily increasing, as has the number of principals with prior experience as an assistant principal. However, the knowledge base on assistant principals has not grown in parallel with their increased presence in schools.Policymakers, practitioners, and researchers have not reached consensus on what the assistant principal role should entail, how to best prepare and support assistant principals, and how to effectively prepare them for success as principals. There is also little discussion about how the assistant principal role can promote equity and diversity in the pathway to the principalship as well as contribute to equitable experiences and outcomes for students, teachers, and staff.In this report, we present the results of a systematic synthesis of 79 empirical research studies on assistant principals published since 2000, including both quantitative and qualitative studies. To address gaps in this research base, we supplement the synthesis with new analyses of national data and data from two states, Tennessee and Pennsylvania. This report provides a descriptive portrait of the assistant principal role. It then addresses two important issues: diversity and equity among assistant principals and assistant principals' influence on student and school outcomes.
The Wallace Foundation;
This groundbreaking synthesis of research on school principals finds that effective principals have positive impacts on student achievement and attendance, as well as teacher satisfaction and retention. Among key findings and recommendations:Studies using new data and methods show that the importance of principals may not have been stated strongly enough in earlier work, given the magnitude and scope of principals' impacts on students and schools.A principal in the 75th percentile of effectiveness yields an increase in student learning in reading and math of about three months, nearly as much as the four months of increased learning generated by a teacher at the 75th percentile, but across an entire school. The principal's effects on students are largely indirect, coming in good measure through teachers, with the principal influencing factors including teacher hiring and development as well as the conditions for sound learning.Evidence links four domains of principal behaviors to positive outcomes for students and schools—and they include but go beyond engagement with instruction.The principalship needs continued reorientation toward educational equity.Given the strength and scope of the impact of an effective principal, investing in successful strategies is likely to have a very large payoff.We need renewed attention to supporting a high-quality principal workforce.The report serves as a wide-ranging update to a landmark 2004 literature review, How Leadership Influences Student Learning, which helped establish the importance of principals after concluding that school leadership was second only to classroom instruction in school-related impacts on student learning. Both reports were commissioned by The Wallace Foundation.The updated synthesis draws on 219 high-quality research studies about school leadership published in the 20 years since 2000, the latter end of the period covered by the earlier review. Among the studies are six, all published since 2012, that examine principal impact by taking advantage of school and principal longitudinal data unavailable 20 years ago. It was through their analysis of these studies that the authors reached their conclusions about principal effects on student achievement.
Brighter Bites started out the year excited about our program's expansion and growth to our seventh market, Salinas, California; then the pandemic changed everything. Many Brighter Bites families who were so reliant on our program for weekly free, fresh produce and nutrition education resources were suddenly unable to engage with us due to quarantines and school closures. We did not allow barriers to stop us, we adjusted, we innovated, and we found ground-breaking ways to continue to accomplish our mission to create communities of health through fresh food. In the midst of adversity in 2020, Brighter Bites served the highest number of families ever, distributed the most produce ever, and had the farthest nutrition education reach ever.
Kitty and Michael Dukakis Center for Urban and Regional Policy at Northeastern University;
This report provides a timely contribution to the growing public policy debate around how we combat structural inequality by quantifying the power of community college as a pathway to economic mobility. Until recently, it has been difficult to accurately estimate the return to a community college education in Massachusetts because numerous factors affect who enrolls, when they enroll, the rate at which they complete a credential, and the field of study that they pursue. The Commonwealth's State Longitudinal Data System (SLDS) allows us to build statistical models that untangle these patterns.Utilizing this dataset, we can isolate increases in employment and earnings over and above what individuals would have experienced if they had not pursued community college studies. While community colleges serve many types of learners, with this first analysis, we focus on Massachusetts public school students who graduated from high school about a decade ago and enrolled in a community college within five years of high school graduation. These young adults represent a large segment of community college enrollment and a population for whom community college is often the highest level of educational attainment.Our analysis consistently uncovers strong labor market returns to community college studies for young adults. The gains are greater for women than men. Students who obtain degrees or credit-bearing certificates in high-demand fields garner particularly large increases in employment and earnings. While we find that low-income students and students of color are less likely to persist in community college, those who do complete degrees and credit-bearing certificates enjoy returns that are at least as large as White and non-low-income students. As detailed below, the findings in this report suggest efforts to position more students for community college success can play a meaningful role in building a more equitable Commonwealth.
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation;
While structural racism has been part of the United States since before its founding, continued racial and gender violence alongside the coronavirus pandemic have exacerbated racial inequities across the country. The disproportionate impact of these events on people of color has catalyzed nationwide activism leading to renewed conversations about who has true access to opportunity in this country. Against this backdrop, the Postsecondary Value Commission leveraged diverse voices and experiences to interrogate the role that postsecondary education can—and should—play in promoting opportunity, paving an equitable path to economic mobility, and dismantling centuries of racist, classist, and sexist attitudes and policies. To be clear: overall, postsecondary education offers individuals the opportunity to earn a better living and build a better life for themselves and their families, while also fostering a healthier, more democratic society. Yet, troubling disparities in access to these opportunities exist by race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and gender.
International Forum for Democratic Studies;
Modern kleptocracy thrives on the ability of kleptocrats and their associates to use their ill-gotten gains in open settings. This often takes the form of investing in high-end real estate or other luxury goods, which serves to both obscure the corrupt origin of the money and to protect it for future use. But there is also a subtler dynamic at play. The use of kleptocratic-linked funding or other forms of engagement in open societies to blur the illicit nature and source of the donation serves to launder kleptocrats' reputations, as well as their cash. This careful cultivation of positive publicity and influence empowers autocrats and their cronies. It also entrenches kleptocrats—and the regimes with which they are associated—in positions of power.Universities and think tanks in open settings are prime targets for reputation laundering. The rapid internationalization of the higher education sector, as well as the swelling demand worldwide for Western education makes academic institutions particularly vulnerable to this form of transnational kleptocratic activity. Indeed, over recent years, there has been a major surge of foreign funding to U.S. and U.K.universities. The composition of fundraising has also changed. Major gifts comprise a growing share of donations, and a relatively small number of wealthy individuals contribute nearly 80 percent of gift-giving to universities.These challenges also affect other open countries where foreign gifts traditionally have not been a major source of funding but are now actively being offered and sought. Countries like the Czech Republic and Germany have witnessed high-profile scandals involving funding from PRC-connected sources, both in exerting influence through opaque payments to faculty or through the application of Chinese law to donor agreements with the university. Such examples highlight the transnational nature of this challenge.This report examines how foreign donors may engage with universities in open settings to launder their reputations. It draws on primary research as well as publicly available secondary data. In a survey of officers in charge of donations at U.K. and U.S. universities, the authors selected the higher education establishments most likely to attract significant funding from potentially illicit sources: the 24 Russell Group universities in the United Kingdom, and the Top 20 large U.S. universities as ranked by the 2020 edition of US News and World Report. The survey asked the respondents to share their institution's gift acceptance policies and the ways in which these policies have changed in recent years. The survey was designed to identify the role of university offices involved in the gift approval process and explain whether gifts are treated differently depending on specific criteria. In the United Kingdom, 17 out of the 24 institutions contacted responded to the survey. In the United States, however, administrators were reluctant to reply or did not respond; that said, many of the surveyed institutions when asked were under compliance investigation concerning the reporting of foreign funds. Although our findings are preliminary, they potentially capture similar funding trends and challenges confronting institutions of higher education in other open societies such as those of Australia, New Zealand, and Europe.
The Andew W. Mellon Foundation;
We will not forget the year 2020 and the mark that it made upon our lives. It was a year that began with a frightening and often mismanaged global pandemic that killed millions, was further shaped by a painful national confrontation on racial violence and injustice, and culminated in an insurrection by white supremacists, with the encouragement of an American president, at the US Capitol on January 6, 2021. Twenty-twenty challenged our Mellon Foundation community, and held us to account through hundreds of days spent in physical isolation from one another, weeks spent grieving over who and what had been lost, and months spent determined to be as helpful as we could, however we could. We were challenged to be even more precise and even more persistent in our work, addressing our responsibility as the nation's largest funder of arts, culture, and the humanities. That Mellon moved surely and deftly through these challenges was due not to serendipity, but to the institutional analysis in which we already had been engaged, examining and reframing our mission and values within a new strategic direction and rigorously clarifying which problems we were trying to solve with our grantmaking. Due to that dedicated process, 2020 was the year when we at Mellon made the shift to assessing all of our work in the arts and humanities through the lens of social justice. Because our new strategic direction debuted as the interconnected trauma and turbulence of COVID-19 and racial injustice unfolded, this shift proved to be especially potent. The speed with which our new focus allowed us to address the urgent needs of our grantees meant that, in less than twelve months, the Mellon Foundation made nearly $200 million in emergency grantmaking—in addition to our regular $300 million grant budget—to significantly support a vast range of organizations across the country.
Annie E. Casey Foundation;
The 32nd edition of the Annie E. Casey Foundation's KIDS COUNT® Data Book describes how children across the United States were faring before — and during — the coronavirus pandemic.This year's publication continues to deliver the Foundation's annual state rankings and the latest available data on child well-being. It identifies multiyear trends — comparing statistics from 2010 to 2019. In addition, the report shares data on how families endured throughout the pandemic.
Research suggests more students have experienced more unfinished learning over the last year than ever before. With the COVID-19 pandemic waning, school systems are facing a critical choice about how to respond. Should they use the traditional approach of reviewing all the content students missed, known as remediation? Or should they start with the current grade's content and provide "just-in-time" supports when necessary, known as learning acceleration?New data from Zearn, a nonprofit organization whose online math platform is used by one in four elementary students nationwide, provides one of the first direct comparisons of these two approaches—and compelling new evidence that school systems should make learning acceleration the foundation of their academic strategies next year and beyond.
Detroit Future City;
The State of Economic Equity in Detroit is a resource for those in the private and public sectors, foundations, nonprofits, community organizations, and residents to inform their actions to advance economic equity. These actions can include agenda setting, advocacy, policy, subject area research, and goal-setting. Detroit Future City has identified 22 indicators across six focus areas. These indicators provide clear, measurable, and accurate data points that not only illustrate the current state of economic equity in Detroit, but can also be used to track economic equity over time.
This report presents the findings of a nationally representative, probability-based telephone survey of more than 1,000 parents of children ages three to 13, all with household incomes below the national median for families in the United States (i.e., $75,000). The survey was conducted in March and April of 2021: one year into the pandemic, and a crucial turning point. Parents could reflect on a full year of remote learning and pandemic parenting, and also look forward—thanks to the proliferation of vaccines—to their children's full and safe return to in-person schooling in the fall. But this survey goes beyond documenting families' challenges. We also uncover what parents feel they have learned through this pandemic year, from increased confidence in their ability to help their child with schoolwork to greater comfort communicating with teachers and developing a deeper understanding of their child's learning patterns. And we look ahead to the next school year, delving into what parents think schools' priorities should be for smoothing their children's transitions to, or back into, the classroom in the fall of 2021.