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Partnership for Evidence-Based COVID-19 Response;
This report distills key insights from PERC's third survey conducted in February 2021. The survey asked people in 19 African Union (AU) Member States about their perceptions of public health and social measures (PHSMs), vaccines, access to health care, food and income while living through the COVID-19 pandemic.Findings from this survey are compared to those from an identical survey implemented in August 2020, alongside the changing epidemiological, political and social contexts, to help identify key findings, policy actions and tools that can be used to strengthen both outbreak response and preparedness.
Paso Del Norte Health Foundation;
In 2020, the Paso del Norte Health Foundation worked to promote health and prevent disease through grantmaking, collaboration, communications and advocacy in five priority areas - Healthy Eating & Active Living, Tobacco & Alcohol Prevention, Mental Health & Emotional Well-being, Healthy Kids, and Health Leadership - with the goal of ensuring that the residents of our region have the knowledge, resources, support, and environment needed to live happy, healthy, and productive lives. The Health Foundation also worked to ensure that it was flexible and responsive to the immediate needs of the community. In 2020, the Health Foundation invested $12 million in grants and charitable expenses working with more than 70 organizations across the five priority areas – including COVID-19.
COVID-19 has devastated Black and Latinx/Hispanic communities in the United States during the past year, erasing recent life expectancy gains and reinforcing racism as a potent, structural driver of health and human inequity.The health disparities contributing to this burden are long-standing. They reach well beyond the pandemic and have left many communities of color with historically worse outcomes. This chartbook details inequities between white, Black, and Latinx/Hispanic communities across a range of health indicators in four main areas:insurance coverage and access to carereceipt of health serviceshealth statusmortality.
In this brief, we update our 2020 report on coverage and access inequities using 2013–2019 data from the American Community Survey Public Use Microdata Sample (ACS PUMS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). We examine trends in Black and Latinx/Hispanic disparities across the following measures, with a particular focus on the effects of Medicaid expansion on equity at the state level:adults ages 19 to 64 who are uninsuredadults ages 18 to 64 who went without care in the past 12 months because of costadults ages 18 to 64 who report having a usual health care provider.
Issue: Automatic enrollment is receiving increased policy attention as a means of achieving universal coverage. Auto-enrollment also could have eliminated insurance gaps that occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, it could face resistance from some Americans who would newly be expected to pay premiums. The approach also raises difficult design and implementation issues.Goal: Explore how two auto-enrollment strategies, one affecting all legal residents and another affecting a narrower low-income population, might work.Methods: Based on lessons learned from the Affordable Care Act and understanding of subsidized insurance programs, we explore design and implementation issues, such as how to deem enrollment, how to collect premiums, and which exemptions to permit. We also use the Urban Institute's Health Insurance Policy Simulation Model (HIPSM) to estimate coverage and cost implications of each approach.Key Findings and Conclusions: Both the comprehensive and limited approach to auto-enrollment would require the development of new administrative systems and enhanced marketplace subsidies to improve coverage affordability. Each approach would operate more simply if accompanied by a public insurance option. We conclude that the administrative and financing challenges related to auto-enrollment can be addressed and that a balance between public costs and sufficient political support could be identified.
AARP Public Policy Institute;
Retail prices for widely used brand name prescription drugs increased substantially faster than general inflation in every year from 2006 to 2020. Between 2019 and 2020, retail prices for 260 brand name prescription drugs widely used by older Americans, including Medicare beneficiaries, increased by an average of 2.9 percent. In contrast, the general inflation rate was 1.3 percent over the same period. Brand name drug prices have routinely increased much faster than general inflation over the past 16 years—the entire period during which the AARP Public Policy Institute has been publishing this report series.
John A. Hartford Foundation;
We have lived through a transformative year. Vaccinations are showing promise in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic that consumed much of 2020, and it is vitally important to take stock of what we have learned. From the harrowing experiences of frontline health care providers, to the pain felt by families who lost loved ones and were kept apart due to the virus, to the insidious structural racism and disparities continuing to harm our society, it has been a challenging time for all of us. Older adults and their families have disproportionately suffered the consequences, especially older adults of color and those living in nursing homes. As we reflect on the past year, our commitment to rapidly improving the care of older adults has only grown deeper and stronger.
Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry;
ObjectiveThe behavioral and emotional profiles underlying adolescent self-harm, and its developmental risk factors, are relatively unknown. We aimed to identify subgroups of young people who self-harm (YPSH) and longitudinal risk factors leading to self-harm.MethodParticipants were from the Millennium Cohort Study (n = 10,827). A clustering algorithm was used to identify subgroups who self-harmed with different behavioral and emotional profiles at age 14 years. We then traced the profiles back in time (ages 5−14 years) and used feature selection analyses to identify concurrent correlates and longitudinal risk factors of self-harming behavior.ResultsThere were 2 distinct subgroups at age 14 years: a smaller group (n = 379) who reported a long history of psychopathology, and a second, much larger group (n = 905) without. Notably, both groups could be predicted almost a decade before the reported self-harm. They were similarly characterized by sleep problems and low self-esteem, but there was developmental differentiation. From an early age, the first group had poorer emotion regulation, were bullied, and their caregivers faced emotional challenges. The second group showed less consistency in early childhood, but later reported more willingness to take risks and less security with peers/family.ConclusionOur results uncover 2 distinct pathways to self-harm: a "psychopathology" pathway, associated with early and persistent emotional difficulties and bullying; and an "adolescent risky behavior" pathway, whereby risk taking and external challenges emerge later into adolescence and are associated with self-harm. At least 1 of these pathways has a long developmental history, providing an extended window for interventions as well as potential improvements in the identification of children at risk, biopsychosocial causes, and treatment or prevention of self-harm.
African American Research Collaborative;
The American COVID-19 Vaccine Poll is a partnership between the African American Research Collaborative and The Commonwealth Fund. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation supported an expansion of the poll in the Native American community and the W.K. Kellogg Foundation supported expansion in New Mexico.We surveyed over 12,000 Americans to better understand their access to and opinions about the vaccines, as well as messages and messengers that encourage different groups to get vaccinated.
Annie E. Casey Foundation;
The 32nd edition of the Annie E. Casey Foundation's KIDS COUNT® Data Book describes how children across the United States were faring before — and during — the coronavirus pandemic.This year's publication continues to deliver the Foundation's annual state rankings and the latest available data on child well-being. It identifies multiyear trends — comparing statistics from 2010 to 2019. In addition, the report shares data on how families endured throughout the pandemic.
California HealthCare Foundation;
In 2019 CHCF commissioned NORC at the University of Chicago to embark on an extensive research project to better understand the health care needs, wants, and values of California adults (18–64) with low incomes. In April and May of 2019 NORC began by holding multiple focus groups and in-depth interviews with Californians with low incomes who represented various racial/ethnic and language groups as well as regions. All participants were screened for having at least one health care encounter in the previous six months.
Elton John AIDS Foundation;
This report—commissioned by Funders Concerned About AIDS (FCAA) in partnership with the Elton John AIDS Foundation (EJAF)—highlights how marginalized communities have been impacted by COVID-19 in the U.S. and globally and what their key evolving needs have been as the pandemic has progressed; provides reflections on lessons learned from private funders' emergency COVID-19 response; and presents a set of recommendations for funders, global health institutions, and governments—including the new U.S. administration—for their efforts going forward. The learning and recommendations are based upon and informed by a review of surveys, reports, and rapid assessments produced by HIV-related funders, philanthropy-serving organizations (PSOs), research institutions, and global, regional, and national networks representing the populations of focus for the learning effort, as well as over 30 interviews with funders, networks, community-based organizations (CBOs), and individual activists, which were conducted by an external consultant team from November 2020 to February 2021.The key underlying theme running throughout this report, and the most commonly expressed reflection from CBOs, networks, and the funders who support them, is that the challenges and stresses highlighted by the pandemic are not new for people living with or at risk of HIV, especially in the case of LGBTQ individuals and communities of color in the U.S. and key populations globally. These challenges reflect the structural, systemic issues that have disproportionately affected these communities for decades, and continue to do so.