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Rockefeller Archive Center;
The following is a report of multiple weeklong research trips that I conducted at the Rockefeller Archive Center over the past year. In particular, it covers research related to my dissertation project on the expansion of the cattle industry during the post-World War II period. Access to the Nelson Rockefeller papers, International Basic Economy Corporation (IBEC) records, David Rockefeller papers, Rockefeller Foundation records, and Winthrop Rockefeller papers provided me the opportunity to trace the underlying social and material networks of the industry, especially in terms of cattle breeding and ranch development. Moreover, the scientific reports from the Rockefeller Foundation (RF) and Ford Foundation (FF) archives provided me with insights into the increasingly global nature of cattle production, the role of beef in development projects, and the ways in which such institutional knowledge is deeply connected to specific local environmental conditions. Throughout this report, I argue that by more clearly understanding the complex networks that were motivated and constructed through Rockefeller financing, scholars of 20th century livestock and meat production can gain a deeper sense of the vital role that cattle have played in shaping mid-20th century agricultural practices in the U.S. and abroad. Moreover, such records highlight the importance of continuing to promote histories that de-emphasize western centers of power as arbiters of science and development. As I reveal in this report, projects sponsored by individual Rockefeller family members, as well as by the RF, FF, and IBEC were negotiated processes that were constrained by particular social and environmental conditions.
Rockefeller Archive Center;
Many stories about green revolutions in South America and Asia revolve around the Rockefeller Foundation and Ford Foundation and their seed research. The materials of the Rockefeller Archive Center have proven to be a rich source for researchers studying the influence of foreign policy actors on agricultural development policy in the Global South. Yet, this research has not included multinational corporations as potential partners of U.S. foreign policy makers and philanthropic foundations in the dissemination of ideas and practices of 'modern agriculture'. This is linked to the understanding of the dissemination of Green Revolution seeds as the spread of a public good. My research has revealed that this was not always the case. It shows that ideas of seed accessibility as a public good competed with ideas and ideals of an effective market economy. Following the ideal of the superiority of a free market, some of the staff of the Rockefeller Foundation in India valued highly the participation of private corporations in their projected ability to effectively organize and market goods. In order to drive technological change in Indian agriculture, especially in maize cultivation, the Rockefeller Foundation relied on U.S. seed companies to increase hybrid seed production. In doing so, the Rockefeller Foundation acted similar to a chamber of commerce by establishing contacts for U.S. corporations with government officials in the US and India, and actively recruited and advised companies to enter the Indian market.
Rockefeller Archive Center;
In the early twentieth century, approximately eighty-five percent of the Chinese population relied on agriculture for its livelihood. Aiming to improve the well-being of China's vast rural population, the Rockefeller Foundation (RF) streamed philanthropic efforts and resources to rural China. The North China Council for Rural Reconstruction (NCCRR), an RF-funded rural philanthropic program composed of six Chinese institutions, was established in Peiping (Beijing) on April 2, 1936. As a nontraditional and experimental program, the NCCRR brought together the leading professors from various disciplines at different universities into intimate contact with philanthropic and educational activities in rural China. Although the program perhaps pointed to the modest ways in which institutions conducted rural philanthropy, the task of reviving China's countryside was ultimately too heavy for the RF as a foreign private foundation. Due to complicated geopolitical circumstances far beyond its control, the RF had to terminate its rural reconstruction work in China in 1944.
La présente recherche a pour objectif d'analyser la compétitivité de l'industrie agroalimentaire au Cameroun. Au niveau sectoriel, l'évolution du commerce des produits alimentaires et de la valeur ajoutée est examinée, tandis qu'au niveau de l'entreprise, un modèle économétrique de la productivité du travail est évalué par type d'entreprise (très petite et petites entreprises – TPPE –, moyennes entreprises – ME – et grandes entreprises – GE). Les résultats indiquent un avantage comparatif limité se traduisant par la position d'importateur net et une orientation du commerce vers l'interbranche du Cameroun.
European Foundation Centre (EFC);
This report is the most comprehensive study to date into support for environmental initiatives provided by European philanthropic foundations. It builds on the three earlier editions, increasing the number of foundations and grants being analysed, along with the total value of these grants.
This 4th edition features a detailed analysis of the environmental grants of 87 European public-benefit foundations, as compared to 75 in the previous edition. These 87 foundations include many of Europe's largest providers of philanthropic grants for environmental initiatives.
Honda Marine Science Foundation;
On October 4 and 5, 2018, the Aquarium of the Pacific's Seafood for the Future program and American Honda, in partnership with the Honda Marine Science Foundation, convened and facilitated a forum, titled: Aligning Stakeholder Communications for U.S. Marine Aquaculture at the Aquarium of the Pacific. The forum's goal was to expand responsible marine aquaculture, or farming in the sea, in the U.S. by facilitating the communication of accurate information to consumers, regulators, policymakers, and the public. The output will be a communications strategy to facilitate more cohesive and accurate messaging about U.S. marine aquaculture in state and federal waters among diverse stakeholder groups.
Worldwide Fund for Nature (WWF);
As highlighted in WWF's Living Planet Report (2018), our ocean remains in crisis and the situation desperately needs change in order to reverse the trend of global biodiversity decline. The European Union's (EU) fisheries footprint spans our planet. With active fishing in every ocean and with the highest number of seafood imports, it is the world's largest seafood market. Recognising that a healthy ocean increases resilience and creates more stable conditions for the viability of the fisheries sector, Europe has a long-established Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) which governs all European fisheries in the waters of EU Member States (MS), in international waters and through fishing agreements in non-European waters around the world.
Following the most recent reform in 2013, the CFP now aims to make fisheries environmentally, economically and socially sustainable. The CFP defines the sustainable management of marine ecosystems and fish stocks. It is based on scientific evidence for a concrete biological understanding of the state of stocks, and refers to socio-economic data before establishing fisheries catch quotas. Successive to this, an accountable, transparent and fair set of rules for fishers must be enforced by promoting a culture of compliance and by applying deterring sanctions for wrongdoers.
Michigan State University Center for Regional Food Systems;
Farm to early care and education (ECE) is a set of activities and strategies—including the use of local foods in meals and snacks, gardening opportunities, and food, nutrition, and agriculture learning activities—implemented with the goals of promoting health and wellness and enhancing the overall quality of the educational experience in all types of ECE settings.
In 2018, the National Farm to School Network (NFSN), in partnership with the Michigan State University Center for Regional Food Systems (CRFS), implemented the 2018 National Farm to Early Care and Education Survey. Similar surveys were conducted in 2012 by NFSN, Ecotrust, and the NFSN Farm to Preschool Subcommittee and in 2015 by NFSN with support of the Farm to ECE Working Group. As with the previous iterations, the 2018 version was implemented to better understand the current landscape and reach of farm to ECE, including the application of activities, motivations, and challenges.
The 2018 survey utilized a purposive sample inviting a representative sample of ECE educators to participate in the survey in order to gain a better perspective of the activities, motivations for implementation, and barriers to farm to ECE among a variety of types of providers. However, limitations of the sampling method and survey design have implications for interpreting the results. These limitations also point to a need for further research and analysis to gain a better understanding of the needs and opportunities for expansion of farm to ECE across all types of programs and settings. This survey and subsequent analysis represent the best efforts to date to capture the information available across as many program types as possible. Future research to evaluate the various characteristics associated with implementation of farm to ECE activities and their barriers is necessary to inform policy and programmatic development to advance farm to ECE.
Carsey School of Public Policy at The University of New Hampshire;
When schools close in the summer, children who depend on school nutrition programs can lose accessto regular meals. To help bridge this gap, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Summer Food Service Program (SFSP) works with state agencies to identify sponsors and meal sites to provide free lunchesin the summer to eligible school-age children. This paper reports on the results of interviews withprogram sponsors and site staff in four communities in Coös County, New Hampshire. Discovering how thisprogram works on the ground and understanding the experiences of program sponsors and staff can help toinform efforts to serve eligible children.
The Accelerating Organic Cotton in China by Replicating Behavioral Change initiative, implemented by RARE and funded by the C&A Foundation, had an implementation period from March 2016 through February 2019. The initiative had five programming objectives: 1) developing a partner implementation network using a hub-and-spoke approach; 2) implementing farmer training and delivery using a train-the-trainer and farmer field school model to promote organic cotton methods; 3) promoting sustainable behavior change; 4) creating sustainable models and lasting relationships based on agricultural best practices and full realization within the value chain; and 5) building demand for subsequent scale of organic production through the cultivation of networks and relationships with relevant governments and industry leaders to encourage and support investment in the scaling of organic cotton.
This evaluation assesses the relevance, efficiency, effectiveness and results, and sustainability of the initiative. Qualitative and quantitative data from reports and interviews have been triangulated through site visits including observations, key informant interviews, and farmer interviews/group discussions. The evaluation also draws on selected key program indicators (KPI) and their evolution over the implementation period, comparing these indicators with program outcomes. The evaluation used data from the following two broad sources: 1) program documents and data provided by the C&A Foundation and Rare, and 2) views as triangulated among a variety of different stakeholders to be interviewed during the evaluation process. The evaluation contains sections on the background of the initiative, scope and methods of the evaluation including a ratings scale by criteria, findings, conclusions, lessons learned, and recommendations.
In July 2018, the Government of Israel tightened restrictions on goods and materials entering and leaving Gaza, noting that the measures were in response to Hamas sending incendiary kites and balloons into Israel. All goods were banned from exiting and many vital materials banned from entering. These restrictions further tighten the blockade – in place for 12 years – which severely limits or prevents the entry and exit of materials to Gaza. Over half the population of Gaza lives under the poverty line, and one million Palestinians in Gaza don't have enough food to feed their families.
This joint agency briefing calls for:
An immediate end to the blockade and opening crossings into and out of Gaza
All parties to refrain from using civilians in Gaza as leverage for political gain
The UN and the international community to support the lifting of restrictions and a long-term strategy for economic development in Gaza.
Hudaydah's residents are already some of the worst affected in the country by hunger and malnutrition. They now face a rapidly deteriorating humanitarian situation, despite a reported pause in the military advance to the sea port and city, and a recent reduction in the fighting. Most areas have no electricity. Whole neighbourhoods have no water, as pipes have been damaged - raising the fear that cholera could once again grip the city. Dozens of businesses have closed, including those providing milk, oil, margarine and cereals. Thousands have fled their homes because they fear a street war like in Taiz. While all parties fighting refuse to compromise, Yemen's civilians are paying the price. As the Hudaydah offensive moves closer to the sea port and city, world leaders have a choice to put their full backing behind peace to bring an end to this crisis, or oversee a potential humanitarian catastrophe.