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This is the first comprehensive study regarding the state of automated decision-making in Europe. Experts have looked at the situation at the EU level but also in 12 Member States: Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands Poland, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the UK. They assessed not only the political discussions and initiatives in these countries but also present a section "ADM in Action" for all states, listing examples of automated decision-making already in use.
The criminalization of private debt happens when judges, at the request of collection agencies, issue arrest warrants for people who failed to appear in court to deal with unpaid civil debt judgments. In many cases, the debtors were unaware they were sued or had not received notice to show up in court.
In February of 2017, the check-cashing industry petitioned the Illinois Department of Financial and Professional Regulation to increase the maximum rate currency exchanges can charge to cash a check in Illinois. Woodstock Institute analyzed income data from 2007 -- the last year in which check-cashing rates were increased -- through 2016 to determine to what degree Illinois households could absorb this increase.
Testimony of Lauren Nolan before the Committee on License and Consumer Protection regarding the proposed ordinance under consideration that would prohibit licensees from refusing to accept cash as payment for goods or services.
Testimony of Illinois State Senator Jacqueline Y. Collins opposing a proposal to increase the rates that may be charged y currency exchanges for check cashing.
Testimony of Brent Adams to Illinois Department of Financial and Professional Regulation on Currency Exchange Rates
Pew Research Center;
Roughly four-in-ten Americans have personally experienced online harassment, and 62% consider it a major problem. Many want technology firms to do more, but they are divided on how to balance free speech and safety issues online
Testimony of Dory Rand to the Director of the Division of Financial Institutions, Illinois Department of Financial and Professional Regulation, urging the state of Illinois not to increase the maximum rates taht may be charged by Illinois currency exchanges for any check cashing services.
Center for Economic and Policy Research;
This report updates a version released in June 2016.
U.S. private equity fundraising had its best year ever in 2015 -- raising $185 billion. But is the enthusiasm of investors warranted? Do PE buyout funds deliver outsized returns to investors and will they do so in the future? This report answers this question by reviewing the most recent empirical evidence on buyout fund performance; the answer is no. While median private equity buyout funds once beat the S&P 500, they have not done so since 2006 -- despite industry claims to the contrary.
New York State Health Foundation;
In New York State, health care spending has steadily increased over the past 25 years, and is expected to continue increasing through 2020; this spending growth has translated directly to increases in health insurance premiums that can make health care unaffordable for consumers and adversely affect wages, employment, and economic growth. As policymakers work to ensure that the health care market functions in a way that maintains access to health care for New Yorkers and supports a competitive market for the industry, they may benefit from a better understanding of the various factors that influence these health care costs. To help inform policymakers and other stakeholders in New York, this study offers an in-depth examination of hospital contracting practices, reimbursement methodologies, and hospital prices in New York. Using information collected from private commercial health insurers and other sources, the study sheds light on how prices vary across hospitals and highlights certain practices that can inhibit healthy market competition. The report also suggests approaches to addressing some of these market dysfunctions. As the first study of its kind in New York, it introduces a range of opportunities for assisting policymakers and other stakeholders in understanding health care costs and developing strategies to slow cost growth.
Kids In Danger;
This report by Kids In Danger (KID) and Shane's Foundation focuses on tip-overs of dressers and chests. ASTM International, which has developed thousands of voluntary industry consensus technical standards, has a standard in place to test furniture stability. However, furniture on the market is not required to conform, resulting in widespread non-compliance. Additionally, these standards are too lenient and require reform, as testing protocols have remained virtually unchanged for over a decade, despite continuing injuries and deaths. Units may pass the standard, but still present a significant risk. KID advocates for a two-pronged approach to decreasing tip-over incidents:
Increasing consumer awareness of the danger of furniture tip-overs and knowledge of the actions needed to keep children safe, and
Improving furniture stability by strengthening standards, making those standards mandatory and enforceable and promoting changes in furniture design.
KID compiled data from incidents reported to the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) by various sources and from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). These include reports from January 1, 2010 to October 14, 2015. Findings of the data analysis include:
Two-year-olds are the age group most affected by tip-overs, especially in regard to fatal incidents.
Children age 2 to 5 accounted for 77% of total incidents.
The age range of children injured is wider than the age range of children killed by tip-overs.
Fatalities accounted for 12% of total incidents.
Head injuries (37%) were the most common category of injury.
Almost all (98.7%) of head injuries are related to a television tipping over on a child.
KID conducted performance tests on a sample of 19 dressers and chests. Testing was run at the UL Furniture Center of Excellence in Holland, Michigan. UL laboratory technicians followed a testing protocol developed by KID. The protocol included tests based on the current voluntary standard for furniture stability. KID added tests that, among other things, evaluated for tip-overs when more weight was added (simulating larger children), drawers were full of clothes, furniture was placed on carpeting as opposed to bare flooring, televisions were placed on top of the furniture, and additional drawers were opened simultaneous with weighting one drawer. These additional tests were intended to be more representative of real-world scenarios.
Test results include:
Only nine of the 19 units passed performance tests based on the current tip-over safety standard, ASTM F2057.
Only two units passed all tests, including the additional testing protocols added by KID.
The weight of a television or any type placed on top of the unit did not decrease the stability of furniture.
Furniture placed on carpet is less stable than furniture placed on hard floors.
Many units remained stable when more than 70 pounds was placed on an open drawer, while others tipped with less than half that weight.
Federal Reserve Bank of New York Center for Microeconomic Data;
The Federal Reserve Bank of New York's Household Debt and Credit Report provides unique data and insight into the credit conditions and activity of U.S. consumers. Based on data from the New York Fed's Consumer Credit Panel, a nationally representative sample drawn from anonymized Equifax credit data, the report provides a quarterly snapshot of household trends in borrowing and indebtedness, including data about mortgages, student loans, credit cards, auto loans and delinquencies. The report aims to help community groups, small businesses, state and local governments and the public to better understand, monitor and respond to trends in borrowing and indebtedness at the household level.