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Aga Khan Foundation USA;
Preliminary findings of the Catholic Relief Services (CRS) programme in Tanzania suggest that by federating Savings Groups into collective marketing structures, the capacity of their members to engage in joint marketing is enhanced. The federated market structure leverages the trust and confidence, created amongst group members through regular financial transactions, to build a more solid platform to joint marketing structures.
Center for Civil Society Studies at Johns Hopkins Institute for Policy Studies;
Drawing on the findings of the Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project, this report provides a broad overview of the civil society sector in countries spanning all six inhabited continents and includes just-released data on developing countries in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. The report provides a comparative overview of the civil society sector in 35 countries; analyzes the scope, size, composition, and financing of the sector, including new data on nonprofit employment, volunteering, expenditures, and revenues; examines geographic patterns and characteristics of the nonprofit sector; and presents data in dozens of easy-to-read charts.
Population Action International;
Reproductive Health Supplies in Six Countries: Themes and Entry Points in Policies, Systems and Funding, identifies the challenges faced by reproductive health programs in Bangladesh, Ghana, Mexico, Nicaragua, Tanzania, and Uganda. Funding constraints, combined with a weak commitment to prioritize the purchase of reproductive health supplies on the side of the recipient countries and a limited capacity for distribution, have created an unstable environment for supplies worldwide. The report, and its six associated case studies, calls for renewed attention to reproductive health supplies to avoid putting the health of millions of women at risk.
Population Services International;
Explore youth's definitions of "trust"Establish criteria youth use to determine the trustworthiness of partnersIdentify types of individuals youth believe they can and cannot "trust"Examine trust's influence on sexual decision-making and STI/HIV risk perceptionIdentify how sexual partners violate trust and the effects on sexual decision-making
Data were collected in October 2001 as part of a regional Behavior Change Communication (BCC) strategy in East and Southern Africa. Country programs chose to participate in research based on project priorities and levels of interest in participating in a regional BCC strategy. Four county programs agreed to collect and share data, Eritrea, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.
A total of 33 focus groups were conducted. Research teams in each country used the same discussion guide and pretested the guide prior to data collection. Discussion groups lasted between an hour and an hour and a half, were audiotaped, and transcribed into English. Each research team conducted two discussion groups in the major urban area composed of the following strata: males 15-19 years, females 15-19 years, males 20-24 years, and females 20-24 years. The Zambia program conducted one additional focus group with males aged 15-19.
Explore youth's definition of "trust" and criteria used to determine trustworthiness
The major components of trust did not vary greatly across countries. Youth in all countries placed a high value on sexual fidelity and its role in trusted partnerships. Youth believed that partners met through family or friends are more trustworthy than those met in bars or nightclubs. In addition, youth in all countries expressed that trusted partners must pass informal assessments, dress appropriately, demonstrate appropriate social conduct, talk sweetly to each other, come from the right neighborhood, meet one another's family, be punctual for appointments/dates, and remain emotionally committed to one another. Eritrean youth appeared to place greater importance on the roles that religion, virginity, and marriage (or intent to marry) play in establishing trust than youth from other countries.
Differences in criteria for trust were more apparent by gender. In terms of testing partners' trustworthiness, females discussed passive ways of questioning partners, while males discussed elaborate methods for entrapping females in lies. Males were concerned with partners' sexual reputation and appearance. Females were primarily concerned with partners' emotional commitment, willingness to accept responsibility for pregnancies, and ability to display affection in public in order to demonstrate intimacy and trust.
Identify types of individuals youth believe they can and cannot "trust"
Across countries, youth place prospective partners into groups that can and cannot be trusted according to key attributes and behaviors. Similar to the findings above, most participants said that youth that come from good families, are well respected in the community, are religious, do not drink, avoid bars and nightclubs, and are faithful can be trusted. Youth believe that they cannot trust anyone outside of committed, monogamous relationships. Male participants added that virgins can be trusted.
Examine trust's influence on sexual decision-making and STI/HIV risk perception
Youth do not appear to take effective preventive measures with trusted partners. Trust can blind them to their risk for STIs/HIV and render them unwilling to explore partners' sexual histories. Sex usually occurs early in relationships and condom use remains low. When youth use condoms, they are more likely to incorporate them into casual than trusted relationships, or use them for pregnancy prevention rather than protection from STIs/HIV. Condoms are usually abandoned once relationships appear to be serious and partners fail to show signs or symptoms of STIs or HIV infection. There were few differences in risk perception and risk behavior across countries; however, male participants in Zambia reported that they discuss their sexual histories, while participants from other countries said that couples rarely discuss their sexual histories.
Identify how sexual partners violate trust and the effects on sexual decision-making
Infidelity represents the most serious violation of trust and usually results in the end of relationships. A common theme across all countries was youth's refusal to learn from past experiences and apply them to future sexual decision-making. Even when trust is broken, youth fail to apply lessons learned to new relationships, repeating the same scenarios of trust, infidelity and exposure to STIs/HIV.
Youth must understand that partners' trustworthiness and character are independent of their risk for STIs/HIV. Although a checklist may help youth select a good partner, unprotected sex with this or any other person must be perceived as risky. Youth must also personalize their risk for STIs/HIV and avoid thinking that only people outside of their community are at risk for infection. It is likely that interpersonal communication campaigns or other community-level activities will help achieve an improved risk perception. Finally, in order to communicate new and appropriate levels of personal risk assessment, programs should strive to achieve broad social support, if not pressure for, consistent condom use, knowledge of one's own HIV status as well as that of all partners, and delay of sexual activity where possible.
This document presents a two page overview of UN Women's work on economic empowerment: "Many international commitments support women's economic empowerment, including the Beijing Platform for Action, [CEDAW] and a series of [ILO] conventions on gender equality. UN Women supports women's economic empowerment in line with these, and with the growing body of evidence that shows that gender equality significantly contributes to advancing economies and sustainable development. Working with a variety of partners, our programmes promote women's ability to secure decent jobs, accumulate assets, and influence institutions and public policies determining growth and development. One critical area of focus involves advocacy to measure women's unpaid care work, and to take actions so women and men can more readily combine it with paid employment."
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich;
This research report gauges Tanzanian civil society's influence in setting the decentralisation agenda, in providing crucial basic services (e.g. health) or to which extent CSOs advocate the rural poor about their rights and obligations.
This document presents the principles of the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness (PD)
(2005) demonstrate a global
commitment to reform aid management
modalities, and improve the quality of
aid so that it contributes to the achievement
of collectively agreed development
goals, such as the Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs). In this
context, gender equality advocates,
human rights activists, and environmental
groups have demanded increased
action to ensure that aid reform translates
into rights-based, sustainable, and
This paper presents an overview of the joint mechanisms that donors have put in place in the countries reviewed, and how these addressed gender issues. The Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness (PD) commits donors and partner countries to reform aid management and delivery in order to strengthen its development outcomes. Through the Declaration, development partners commit to implementing common arrangements for planning, funding, disbursing, monitoring, evaluating and reporting on donor activities and aid flows at country level.
This document presents how donors, both individually and collectively, have made numerous commitments to advance gender equality through their official development assistance (ODA). For instance, the European Commission (EC) has acknowledged that gender equality is a fundamental human right and instrumental to achieving the MDGs. The research conducted under the EC/UNIFEM programme ?Integrating Gender Responsive Budgeting into the Aid Effectiveness Agenda' assessed to what extent some of these gender equality commitments had been put into practice. In addition to the EC, the research covered another major donor in each of the ten countries. This brief presents examples of how donors addressed gender equality concerns in their aid management practices and instruments in the select countries. It is important to note that these are not necessarily representative of donor practices beyond the countries covered in the study.
This document outlines the main findings of the country research conducted under the European Commission (EC)/UNIFEM programme ?Integrating Gender Responsive Budgeting into the Aid Effectiveness Agenda'. The three-year programme is funded by the European Commission (EC) and consists of research and programmatic technical assistance.
This document presents a series of knowledge briefs was produced on the basis of research carried out under the European Commission-supported programme ?Integrating Gender Responsive Budgeting into the Aid Effectiveness Agenda'. The three-year programme consists of research and programmatic technical assistance.
World Bank, The;
This paper presents the results of two large-scale, government-led handwashing and sanitation promotion campaigns in rural Tanzania. Their results highlight the importance of focusing on intermediate outcomes of take-up and behavior change as a critical first step in large-scale programs before realizing the changes in health that sanitation and hygiene interventions aim to deliver.