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Worldwide, it is estimated that two million children are infected with HIV (USAID 2005). The vast majority of these infections are the result of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of the virus during pregnancy, labor, or breastfeeding. However, there are effective methods for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). Botswana is one of the first countries in the developing world with a national PMTCT program that uses an efficacious and complex regimen to reduce vertical transmission. At the time of this evaluation (August - December 2005), the standard of care for prevention of MTCT of HIV in Botswana included three-drug antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected women with a CD4 count of < 200; twelve weeks of zidovudine (AZT) for women with CD4>200 (300 mg AZT in the morning and 300 mg AZT in the evening); four weeks of AZT for their infants; single-dose maternal and infant nevirapine (NVP); and 12 months of free infant formula. Botswana's PMTCT program also provided routine HIV testing for all pregnant women during antenatal care (ANC) to identify HIV-positive women for prophylaxis or treatment. While programs often report the number of individuals beginning AZT and receiving nevirapine for PMTCT, effectiveness is dependent on the level of adherence of individuals to these regimens. To describe adherence of pregnant women to the current PMTCT regimen, the Horizons Program of the Population Council, in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Premiere Personnel in Botswana, conducted an evaluation to describe HIV-related services provided to women during their pregnancies, document the content of post-test counseling sessions for HIV-positive pregnant women, whether HIV-positive women remembered what had been discussed, the extent of AZT adherence based on self-reports, and the operational successes and barriers to adherence to AZT for PMTCT.
Commonwealth Policy Studies Unit;
The findings of the case study on Botswana indicate that mining companies in Botswana have adopted the philosophy of CSR and are prepared to link social and environmental initiates to their core business. Particularly impressive is the comprehensive approach taken by the diamond mining company Setswana to develop and decentralise its strategy on Corporate Social Investment. In so doing, the company demonstrated preparedness to go beyond business as usual' approach of merely creating jobs and provide Foreign Direct Investment (FDI).
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM);
This paper presents a study case on innovative corporate social responsibility as a very important aspect of management planning and, in the process, explores some trends and new ideas pertaining to corporate social responsibility in mining industries. Some pertinent literature is reviewed as a theoretical frame to introduce the presentation of the Debswana Mining Company case to show innovative corporate social responsibility in the mining industries in Botswana.
This is an in-depth report on the first public-private partnership to tackle the HIV epidemic at a national scale in Sub-Saharan Africa. Based on the experience of the African Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Partnerships (ACHAP) working with industry leaders, NGOs, and the government over the past fifteen years. This report offers lessons learned from ACHAP's successes and challenges, and implications for other global health partnerships.
IRC International Water and Sanitation Center;
Summarizes papers and case studies about promoting hygiene in South and Southeast Asia, the Pacific, and Africa. Synthesizes lessons learned, including: know the focus groups, ensure opportunities for change, and enable and motivate good hygiene practice.
This in-depth study of the hydrological risks to hydropower dams on the Zambezi River gives an early warning about what Southern Africa could be facing as it contemplates plans for more large hydropower dams in a time of climate change.
Currently, 13,000 megawatts of new large-dam hydro is proposed for the Zambezi and its tributaries. The report finds that existing and proposed hydropower dams are not being properly evaluated for the risks from natural hydrological variability (which is extremely high in the Zambezi), much less the risks posed by climate change.
Overall, Africa's fourth-largest river will experience worse droughts and more extreme floods. Dams being proposed and built now will be negatively affected, yet energy planning in the basin is not taking serious steps to address these huge hydrological uncertainties. The result could be dams that are uneconomic, disruptive to the energy sector, and possibly even dangerous.
The report recommends a series of steps to address the coming storm of hydrological changes, including changes to how dams are planned and operated.
Open Society Institute;
Based on interviews, documents violence against and abuses of sex workers, their efforts to protect their rights by organizing, and the limitations of rehabilitation-based approaches to sex work. Recommends rights-based approaches and policy reforms.
World Health Organization;
This monograph describes the current status and achievements of a joint project among five countries -- Botswana, Ethiopia, United Republic of Tanzania, Uganda, Zimbabwe -- and the WHO. This report intends to guide the national health planners and public health programme managers within and outside Africa to conduct their own situation analysis and assessment of palliative care needs for HIV/AIDS and cancer patients.
In countries with severely limited resources, a community health approach relying extensively on home-based care and community involvement in the provision of symptom control, psychosocial support and end-of-life care is recommended in order to improve the quality of life of patients suffering from chronic life-threatening conditions.
At least one in every 200 individuals each year in Africa needs palliative care and there are clear gaps in the ability of existing health services to provide even basic palliative care. About 1.6 million individuals (one percent) of the population in these countries need palliative care services annually. The greatest needs of terminally ill patients were for adequate pain relief, accessible and affordable drugs, and financial support.