No result found
The past decade has witnessed profound social, political and economic change in Indonesia, a country that has transformed from an authoritarian regime into one of Asia's most vibrant and decentralized democracies. This transformation is especially remarkable given Indonesia's high vulnerability to natural disasters, its geographic fragmentation and its large and ethnically diverse population. In a decade, Indonesia achieved relative political and macroeconomic stability, made important progress towards its MDG targets, graduated to a Middle Income Country status and was welcomed to the fold of the G20.
However, significant challenges still remain. Regional economic and social disparities persist, poverty rates are high and malnutrition pervasive in remote provinces. Maternal health indicators are alarming and far behind all other targets. This situation is exacerbated by low development management capacity at the sub-national level. Rapid urbanisation will increase demand for health services, education, livelihoods and security. Indonesia's commitment to reducing greenhouse emissions will require reforms in the economic and social sectors. Addressing these challenges while consolidating democracy, furthering decentralisation and building resilience will be key to advancing human development in Indonesia and avoiding poverty and marginalization.
The overall goal of the Government of Indonesia is 'Development for All'. The Medium Term Development Plan (RPJMN) 2010-2014 is an inclusive development strategy based on equity, justice and diversity. It emphasizes the development of regional capacities within an integrated national economy. The plan identifies 11 national priority programmes, which fully mainstream Sustainable Development, Good Governance and Gender perspectives.
Although the net flow of funds to Indonesia from overseas development partnerships averages to only five percent of the national annual budget, the amount in absolute terms remains significant, and government is committed to making the best use of these funds with a view to maximizing their added value in support of national priorities. With this objective in mind, the government of Indonesia has redefined its relationship with its bilateral and multilateral partners through the Jakarta Commitment. The recently signed Jakarta Commitment calls for stronger national ownership, equal partnerships, and a strategic and catalytic role in support of national priorities for Indonesia's overseas development partners.
International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED);
On the coast of Java, Semarang City faces a multitude of climate-related problems including sea-level rise, flash and tidal floods, subsidence and coastal erosion.
Using four case-study villages, this working paper explores how households are coping with the impacts of climate change. How do they decide whether to protect, adapt or relocate their property to areas less affected, and what are the costs?
Understanding household risk assessments and decision-making processes should effectively tailor government policies to reduce vulnerability and support local adaptation strategies. By bringing together all stakeholders, an urban climate governance approach should ensure a more resilient city.
International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED);
The impacts of global change can be felt by local communities during both short-term events such as intense storms and long-term changes such as rising temperatures and changing rainfall patterns. Natural disasters related to hydrometeorology are likely to increase in severity, while in coastal areas sea-level rises require serious attention. At city scale, with high levels of urbanisation, local rising temperatures can affect the quality of life of communities. Urban heat islands (UHI) reflect the magnitude of the difference in observed ambient air temperature between cities and their surrounding rural regions. This study aims to identify whether the urban heat island phenomena is occurring two cities in Indonesia: Jakarta, a large metropolitan city with a business and industrial background, and Bandar Lampung, a growing city with an agricultural background. The aim is to identify community vulnerability to UHI impacts and community adaptation efforts related to UHI.
The results show that UHI is present in both Jakarta and Bandar Lampung. The UHI was clearly evident in morning temperatures in Bandar Lampung, showing that the area surrounding the city had more air moisture due to vegetation land cover, compared to the city area. In Jakarta the UHI effect was clearly visible in the afternoon, and the highest temperature was in high density settlement areas compared to the business and industrial area. Communities in both Bandar Lampung and Jakarta were assessed to have average (moderate) vulnerability levels. Bandar Lampung's moderate vulnerability level is due to low levels of community knowledge of climate change impacts and public facilities, but there were indications of adaptation in the form of natural spontaneous adaptation. Jakarta faces rising temperatures but has low adaptation levels which could be due to low levels of participation in community programmes in general.
Kerusakan dan susutnya lahan hutan di Indonesia sangat tinggi. Ini membahayakan kelestarian sumberdaya hutan dan memicu perubahan iklim global. Salah satu penyebab surutnya sumberdaya hutan adalah pembalakan liar. Ada beberapa jalan untuk mengerem pembalakan liar.
Yakni memotong perdagangan kayu ilegal. Caranya, dengan mengawasi transaksi kayu ilegal melalui sertifikasi (labelling) atas asal-usul kayu. Dalam bisnis perkayuan, cara ini lazim disebut Sistem Verifikasi Legalitas Kayu (SVLK). Melalui verifikasi, ada harapan kayu di pasaran dapat dipertanggungjawabkan legalitasnya. Orang tak lagi asal menebang pohon, asal menjual, dan asal membeli kayu.
isher: Kemitraan Bagi Pembaruan Tata Pemerintahan;
Inisiatif Kemitraan Asia Tenggara -- United States (IKAT-US) Component 1 -- POWER, is one of Partnership's projects that supports efforts to increase women's representation in the Philippines, Cambodia, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Timor-Leste. One of the activities of the program is to conduct research on the success of, as well as the barriers to, increasing the representation of women. The research projects are: 1) "Women's Representation in the Parliament as Result of Different Electoral Systems: A Comparative Study in Five Southeast Asian Countries" - research and report by Ramlan Surbakti & August Mellaz 2) "The Increased Number of Female Members of Parliament: Identifying Its Origini and Obstacles in Indonesia, the Philippines and Timor-Leste" - research and report by Philips Vermonte 3) The Role of Parliamentary Women's Caucus in Promoting Women's Participation and Representation: A Case Study in Indonesia and Timor Leste" - research and report by Ani Soetjipto 4) "Patriarchal Barriers to Women's Political Participation in Southeast Asia: Lesson from the Philippines, Cambodia, Malaysia, Indonesia, and TimorLeste on Patriarchy and the Rise of Women's Participation in State Politics"- research and report by Adrianna Venny & Ruth Indiah Rahayu.
The content of this e-Book is sourced from the above four research projects and is compiled to link the projects and to form a complete narration. These research papers are not only re-presented in this report, but also quoted in various parts.
Hence, the sources for this paper are the researchers mentioned above, under the project authority of IKAT-US Component 1 and therefore the names of the researchers in this e-Book are not included in the footnote and references.
With this e-Book, research data regarding women's representation in Southeast Asia can be widely circulated and easily accessed by the public, allowing it to be a source of reference for further research, education, or advocacy.
INFID (International NGO Forum on Indonesian Development);
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as a long term world development agenda has been started in 2000 and will soon end in two more years in 2015. In 2012, the Secretary-General of the United Nations Ban Ki Moon has appointed three co-chairs: President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono of Indonesia, President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf of Liberia, and Prime Minister David Cameron of the United Kingdom to draft post-MDGs Development Agenda. The three co-chairs will lead 23 High Level Panel Eminent Persons (HLPEP) which are composed of experts from all over the world in drafting the post-2015 Development Agenda.
This paper "Injustice, Gap and Inequality; Long Road to post-2015 Sustainable Development" is produced by the Civil Society Coalition for the post-2015 Development Agenda in the context of the fact that the Indonesian civil society have and will continue working on different fields for the purpose of supporting the eventual achievement of MDGs, as well as other sectors that are not necessarily directly related to MDGs, but very instrumental in the achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia.
Puluhan juta penduduk termiskin di Indonesia hidup dan bergantung kepada sumberdaya hutan. Kebijakan dan pengelolaan sumberdaya hutan yang ekstraktif dengan dominasi negara telah menyebabkan deforestasi dan kerusakan terhadap sumberdaya hutan di Indonesia. Di samping memicu berbagai konflik sosial karena telah menimbulkan hilangnya hakhak masyarakat adat dan masyarakat lokal terhadap kawasan hutan. Banyak persoalan ini berakar dari rezim Pemerintah yang tidak transparan dan lebih mendukung eksploitasi sumber daya alam secara komersial, mengorbankan kelestarian dan keadilan Kebijakan pengelolaan hutan seperti ini tidak mampu meningkatkan kesejahteraan masyarakat yang hidup di dalam dan sekitar hutan.
Kemitraan percaya, pengelolaan kehutanan yang lebih setara dan berkelanjutan mampu meningkatkan perekonomian mereka, sekaligus menghambat laju kerusakan hutan. Kemajuan penting telah dicapai dalam lima tahun terakhir. Banyak peluang untuk mengubah paradigma pengelolaan sumber daya hutan agar membawa manfaat bagi masyarakat Indonesia secara bertanggungjawab dan berkelanjutan. Perubahanperubahan ini terlihat di dalam instansi pemerintah terkait melalui diskusi-diskusi dan praktik-praktik yang bertujuan membangun landasan desentralisasi pengelolaan hutan.
Ada kebutuhan mendesak, untuk upaya dan koordinasi yang lebih terpadu di semua tingkatan. Perubahan ini dapat didorong dengan memanfaatkan momentum: maraknya perdebatan mengenai iklim dan tata kelola hutan, yang mengharuskan keterlibatan masyarakat terkait dan aspirasi masyarakat adat, serta pemangku kepentingan lain seperti sektor swasta dan masyarakat internasional. Dalam konteks peningkatan akses masyarakat dalam pengelolaan hutan, Peraturan Pemerintah PP no.6 tahun 2007 telah memberikan ruang melalui skema HKM, Hutan Desa, HTR, dan Skema Kemitraan. Selain itu Peraturan Pemerintah ini juga memandatkan untuk mewujudkan pengelolaan hutan di tingkat tapak melalui Kesatuan Pengelolan Hutan (KPH).
Taylor & Francis Group;
Indonesia has turned its alleged role as global leader of land-based carbon emissions into a role as a global trailblazer exploring modalities for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+ ). REDD+ readiness is largely about improving forest governance, but this itself is a multilayered concept. This article analyses how the processes and practices of REDD+ readiness are leading to various forest governance reforms in Indonesia. We analysed six dimensions of REDD+ readiness progress over the past six years and the way these interact with land tenure reform and land-use planning. We found evidence that (1) tenure issues are taken more seriously, as evidenced by the development of social safeguard mechanisms and efforts to accelerate the gazettement of forest boundaries, although a constitutional court recognition in 2013 for customary forest management is, however, yet to be operationalized; (2) spatial planning relates forests more clearly to other parts of the landscape in terms of compliance with Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) commitments; and (3) the forest and peatland conversion moratorium initiative led to a revamping of forest management. Despite progress, there are still major obstacles to full REDD+ implementation in Indonesia. The discussion focuses on the weaker part of readiness and possible ways forward.
Palm oil is the world's most traded vegetable oil: in August 2012, the share of palm oil (including kernel oil) in world supply was 37.6%. Palm oil is extracted from the fruit of the oil palm tree (Elaeisguineensis); the main products are crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel oil (PKO). In terms of land use, the oil palm tree is more efficient than any other oil crop, and in economic terms palm oil is highly competitive. The value chain of palm oil and its derivatives has a strong degree of vertical integration, and its production costs are relatively low compared to other vegetable oils. It is therefore seen as one of the cheapest and most attractive vegetable oils traded on the world market.
There is a growing demand from the commercial food and oleo-chemical industries that use oil palm in processed foods, cosmetics, soaps, pharmaceuticals, industrial and agro-chemical products, and as a feedstock for bio-diesel. The growing worldwide interest in bio-diesel as an alternative to fossil fuel is expected to lead to the further expansion oil palm plantation. Tilman and colleagues assert that this might lead to a food -- energy -- environment 'trilemma'. Even though oil palm trees are not a problem (they are 'green'), the rapid expansion of oil palm plantations across Southeast Asia, and particularly Indonesia and Ma? laysia, could cause the destruction of rainforests, as well as a lot of social problems, including food security challenges. There are concerns that oil palm expansion will lead to the loss of biodiversity and the conversion of forest area and the aggravation of social conflicts.
With these controversies in mind, this chapter provides an overview of the pros and cons of oil palm development in Indonesia, paying attention to changing government policies and focusing on the implications of increasing oil palm investments for migration, settlement/ resettlement and local economic development.
Forest Peoples Programme;
International concern has been growing about the impacts of the continuing expansion of oil palm plantations. The spread of oil palm has been blamed for extensive forest destruction, uncontrolled forest fires, loss of precious wild species and the undermining of environmental services. Yet already in Indonesia some 5 million people are involved in estates and mills as labourers or their families and as many again are tied to large estates as smallholders. Palm oil has major social as well as environmental impacts.
World markets for edible oils are set to double in the next twenty years, implying a doubling of the area under oil palm if market share is maintained. New markets for 'biofuels' also provide scope for increased palm oil sales. Indonesia's national development plans are designed to secure it a large share of these markets.
Land based industries, most significantly palm oil plantations, timber concessions and mining operations, are expanding quickly in Indonesia. With approximately 840,000 ha of forest loss per year (Margono et al 2014), Indonesia suffers the world's highest rate of deforestation. As civil society organizations (CSOs) implement forest conservation strategies and programs to respond to the issue of forest loss, there is a growing concern that they lack the ability to address gender justice, or more specifically, Gender, Environment and Development, one field of Gender and Development. 1 This weakness may undermine CSO's ability to ameliorate the gendered injustices that limit women and marginalized communities' participation in forest governance. It also limits CSO's ability to build grassroots constituencies, which are crucial for driving reform. Drawing on the Gender, Environment and Development literature, and a gender assessment of selected Indonesian environmental CSOs, this paper provides a brief overview of the major gender issues relevant to forest and land governance, and makes six recommendations to help CSOs develop more gender sensitive advocacy and programming. The paper aims to contribute to the overall objective of improving gender justice (including women's participation) in forest governance.
It is now recognized that addressing deforestation and forest and peatlands degradation and destruction in Indonesia requires improvements to land and forest governance. It is also accepted that further research is required into this large field of study and practice. In particular needs have been identified for better links between theory and practice, and between academic analysis and work in the field. To respond to this gap, this study investigates the underlying drivers of deforestation, and forest and peatlands degradation and destruction (herein called deforestation and peatlands degradation) with the intention of identifying interventions that will improve land and forest governance in Indonesia. Through a Delphi process, a panel of experts on forest and land governance identified three main drivers of deforestation and peatlands degradation. These were: (1) unclear land tenure and uncertain land classification (agreed by 88% of respondents); (2) business and political interests that influence policy-making and regulations (70% agreement) and (3) ineffective land use planning (53% agreement).
In response, the panel recommended three priority governance interventions relating to the following issues: (1) increasing the capacity of local communities to manage and monitor forests and natural resources (65% agreement); (2) gazetting forests to clarify land boundaries and determine which areas should be village, community and state forest zone (58% agreement); (3) integrating participatory maps into spatial plans to protect local communities and indigenous peoples' development needs (53% agreement). A research theme with the highest agreement was the following: action research involving the government, private sector and community (64% agreement).
This study finds that there is strong support for community level approaches to forest management. Securing community forest tenure through clarifying land claims and integrating local land tenure into spatial planning is a key step to achieving sustainable forest management. The concluding recommendations suggest that the most efficacious interventions to be taken by researchers, government, donors and civil society to improve Indonesia's forest and land governance processes include: Support community institutions; Accelerate forest gazettement using local community institutions to clarify community forest claims; Integrate participatory maps into spatial plans; Support local communities' ability to monitor forests; Conduct action research involving all stakeholders; Address financing of the forest and land sector; Engage political economy analysis.