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Public Citizen's Global Trade Watch;
A Special Report By Public Citizen's Global Trade Watch and Critical Mass Energy and Environment Program. A review of U.S. government "system" audits of five nations (Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Australia and Canada) reveals that the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)'s Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) deemed "equivalent" systems with sanitary measures that differ from FSIS policy, and in some cases, violate the express language of U.S. laws and regulations. Because FSIS has refused to respond to Public Citizen Freedom of Information Act requests for correspondence and other documentation regarding these equivalency decisions, it is impossible to determine what is the current status of these issues and whether they have been resolved by regulators. - The U.S. law requiring meat to be inspected by independent government officials was violated by Brazil and Mexico and they retained their eligibility to export to the United States. - The USDA's zero tolerance policy for contamination by feces was repeatedly violated by Australia, Canada and Mexico. - U.S. regulations requiring monthly supervisory reviews of plants eligible to export be conducted on behalf of USDA by foreign government officials were violated by Argentina, Brazil, Canada and Mexico, several of whom are seeking to avoid this core requirement of U.S. regulation. Monthly reviews are vitally important to remind the meat industry that the meat inspector who works the line in the plant is backed by the weight of the government and to double-check the work of meat inspectors on a regular basis. - Even though U.S. regulations requiring that a government official -- not a company employee -- sample meat for salmonella microbial contamination, the USDA approved company employees performing this task as part of an equivalency determination with Brazil and Canada. - Even though U.S. regulations require certain microbial testing to be performed at government labs, the U.S. approved testing by private labs as part of the equivalency determination with Brazil, Canada and Mexico. - Unapproved and/or improper testing procedures and sanitation violations have been re-identified by FSIS year after year for Australia, Brazil, Canada and Mexico, but the countries have retained their eligibility to export to the United States. - After its regulatory systems was designated "equivalent," Mexico began using alternative procedures for salmonella and E. coli that had never been evaluated by FSIS, yet the country retained its eligibility to import to the United States. - Australia and Canada were allowed to export to the United States while using their own methods and procedures for such matters as E. coli testing, postmortem inspection, monthly supervisory reviews and pre-shipment reviews while awaiting an equivalency determination from FSIS. - FSIS auditors and Canadian food safety officials continue to disagree about whether particular measures have already been found "equivalent" by FSIS, yet Canadian imports remained uninterrupted. - The regulatory systems of Brazil and Mexico have been rated equivalent even though the countries plead insufficient personnel and monetary resources to explain their inability to carry out all required functions.
Center for Economic and Policy Research;
Recent estimates of the U.S. economic gains that would result from the proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) are very small -- only 0.13 percent of GDP by 2025. Taking into account the un-equalizing effect of trade on wages, this paper finds the median wage earner will probably lose as a result of any such agreement. In fact, most workers are likely to lose -- the exceptions being some of the bottom quarter or so whose earnings are determined by the minimum wage; and those with the highest wages who are more protected from international competition. Rather, many top incomes will rise as a result of TPP expansion of the terms and enforcement of copyrights and patents. The long-term losses, going forward over the same period (to 2025), from the failure to restore full employment to the United States have been some 25 times greater than the potential gains of the TPP, and more than five times as large as the possible gains resulting from a much broader trade agenda.
Compares the U.S. health system to those of twelve OECD countries based on measures of spending; physician supply and visits; utilization, supply, and prices of drugs and diagnostic imaging; and performance. Examines the causes of high U.S. spending.
"U.S. Foundation Funding for Australia", the first report of its kind, is part of a larger project involving the United States Studies Centre at the University of Sydney, Philanthropy Australia, and Foundation Center. A primary goal of this partnership is to improve awareness and understanding in Australia of the U.S. philanthropic sector, while also strengthening philanthropic ties between the two countries and demonstrating the value of transparency within the not-for-profit sector. In the current report, we examine the priorities of U.S. foundation funding to organizations located in Australia, as well as funding for organizations supporting causes in Australia. The quantitative analysis is based on grantmaking data from among the largest U.S. foundations. The report also presents perspectives of U.S. and Australian funders on the current role of philanthropy in Australia, specific challenges and opportunities, and what is needed to achieve greater impact.
This report is the third in a series to chronicle the concluding years of The Atlantic Philanthropies, the largest foundation ever to decide to commit its entire endowment in a limited timeframe and then close its doors.
It covers events that occurred from late 2010 through September 2012, some four to five years before Atlantic expects to make its final grant commitments, including:an intense 10-month strategic planning process to narrow its grantmaking focus and set a timetable for the foundation's concluding period for each programme and each country where it operatesstaff concerns as the realities of the end of foundation set inHuman Resources' plans to help employees prepare for their post-Atlantic careers and positive reactions to the release of an explicit policy on severancean examination into the issue of grantee sustainability, particularly in countries and programmes where replacement funders are unlikely.In-depth case studies explore Atlantic's impact and the challenge of grantee sustainability in two focus areas: efforts to abolish the death penalty in the U.S. and to promote the rights of the rural poor in South Africa.
Center for Civil Society Studies at Johns Hopkins Institute for Policy Studies;
A "global associational revolution," a major upsurge of organized, private, voluntary and nonprofit activity, has been under way around the world for the past thirty years or more. Despite the scale and scope of this development, however, official data to portray it have long been lacking. This report takes an important step toward remedying this situation by presenting a summary of new findings from the implementation b statistical offices in sixteen countries of the United Nations "Handbook on Nonprofit Institutions in the System of National Accounts".
Developed by the Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies in cooperation with the UN Statistics Division and an International Technical Experts Group, and issued by the U.N. in 2003, this Handbook calls on national statistical offices to produce regular "satellite accounts" on nonprofit institutions and volunteering for the first time, and provides detailed guidance on how to do so. The result is a far more complete official picture of the scope and structure of the nonprofit or civil societ sector than has ever been available in these countries.
This report presents the findings from the implementation of this UN NPI Handbook in 16 countries aound the world, including data on the comparative workforce, contribution to GDP, expenditures, revenues, and distribution of activities, and an in-depth look at the advantages off the Handbook approach over the traditional SNA methods of measurement.
It is our hope that this report will help to encourage civil society and foundation leaders, volunteer promotion organizations, and statistical offices in other countries to promote the implementation of the UN NPI Handbook in their countries. The result will be to make the nonprofit and volunteer sector more visible, enhance its credibility, enable more effective partnerships between NPIs and public and private institutions, open new research opportunities for scholars, improve the clarity with which national accounts statistics portray national economies, and ultimately to improve citizen well-being.
Center for Civil Society Studies at Johns Hopkins Institute for Policy Studies;
Drawing on the findings of the Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project, this report provides a broad overview of the civil society sector in countries spanning all six inhabited continents and includes just-released data on developing countries in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. The report provides a comparative overview of the civil society sector in 35 countries; analyzes the scope, size, composition, and financing of the sector, including new data on nonprofit employment, volunteering, expenditures, and revenues; examines geographic patterns and characteristics of the nonprofit sector; and presents data in dozens of easy-to-read charts.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD);
This publication yields a policy-oriented analysis of past and present foundation contributions to development fields. The study was commissioned by the OECD and undertaken in its member countries. Included are statistics and four annexes which give detailed background information and data on current projects.
This voluntary Code of Practice constitutes a recommendation for full Grantmaking Philanthropy Australia members. Its aim is to encourage best practice, openness and transparency in all aspects of grantmaking by these member organisations, whether they are family foundations, corporate foundations or corporate giving programmes, community foundations, private foundations or government-initiated foundations.
"Happiness research" studies the correlates of subjective well-being, generally through survey methods. A number of psychologists and social scientists have drawn upon this work recently to argue that the American model of relatively limited government and a dynamic market economy corrodes happiness, whereas Western European and Scandinavian-style social democracies promote it. This paper argues that happiness research in fact poses no threat to the relatively libertarian ideals embodied in the U.S. socioeconomic system. Happiness research is seriously hampered by confusion and disagreement about the definition of its subject as well as the limitations inherent in current measurement techniques. In its present state happiness research cannot be relied on as an authoritative source for empirical information about happiness, which, in any case, is not a simple empirical phenomenon but a cultural and historical moving target. Yet, even if we accept the data of happiness research at face value, few of the alleged redistributive policy implications actually follow from the evidence. The data show that neither higher rates of government redistribution nor lower levels of income inequality make us happier, whereas high levels of economic freedom and high average incomes are among the strongest correlates of subjective well-being. Even if we table the damning charges of questionable science and bad moral philosophy, the American model still comes off a glowing success in terms of happiness.
Philanthropy Australia defines philanthropy as the planned and structured giving of money, time, information, goods and services, voice and influence to improve the wellbeing of humanity and the community. We define the philanthropic sector as trusts, foundations, organisations, families and individuals who engage in philanthropy. Our role is to support the philanthropic endeavour of our Members.
This report explores how mobile services provided by Vodafone and the Vodafone Foundation are enabling women to seize new opportunities and improve their lives. Accenture Sustainability Services were commissioned to conduct research on the services and to assess their potential social and economic impact if they were widely available across Vodafone's markets by 2020.
It showcases the projects and the work of those involved and also poses the question -- what would the benefit to women and to society at large be if projects such as these were taken to scale and achieved an industrialscale of growth? This reflects the Foundation's commitment not solely to the development of pilots but rather the Trustees' ambition to see projects which lead to transformational change.
In order to understand this more deeply, the Report looks at the benefits for women and society and providessome financial modelling for how the engagement of commercial players could achieve industrial, sustainable growth in these areas. Accenture has provided the modelling and, given the public benefit and understanding which the report seeks to generate, these are shared openly for all in the mobile industry to understand and share. It is the Trustees' hope that the collaboration with Oxford University and Accenture in the delivery of this Report will stimulate not only the expansion of existing charitable programmes but will also seed other philanthropic, social enterprise or commercial initiatives.