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Overseas Development Institute;
This report explores for the first time the scale of the challenge for 20 cities across the world to reach selected targets set out in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). More than half of the targets included will require a profound acceleration of efforts if they are to be achieved by the majority of selected cities. Targets that are not on course to be met by the majority of cities studied include ending child malnutrition, achieving full and productive female employment, access to adequate housing and access to drinking water and sanitation.
The report makes a series of recommendations to increase progress towards the SDGs, including:
Central governments and donors should work to strengthen local governments' capacities.
Government and city administrations should invest more in ways to monitor progress on the SDGs.
Statistical offices' and cities' information systems should improve the data available.
World Resources Institute (WRI);
Degraded lands—lands that have lost some degree of their natural productivity through human activity—account for over 20 percent of forest and agricultural lands in Latin America and the Caribbean. Some 300 million hectares of the region's forests are considered degraded, and about 350 million hectares are now classified as deforested. The agriculture and forestry sectors are growing and exerting great pressure on natural areas. With the region expected to play an increasingly important role in global food security, this pressure will continue to ratchet up. In addition, land degradation is a major driver in greenhouse gas emissions in the region. Forest and landscape restoration can offer a solution to these increasing pressures.
Many Caribbean reef fisheries have been overexploited for decades and often their decline has been accelerated by a loss of habitat. Improved management of Caribbean reef fisheries is vital to ensure their future sustainability. Reef fisheries in the Caribbean are difficult to manage due to the use of multiple fishing gear types, the number of species harvested, and the dispersed landing sites used by the fishers. Additionally, there is very little published information available on Caribbean reef fisheries and limited research into the effects of management. This review provides a synthesis of the published literature on four gears commonly used in Caribbean reef fisheries: fish traps, spears, hook and line, and beach seines, summarizing evidence on best management practices for each gear. The authors provide brief descriptions of each of the four gear types as well a synthesis of their use, biological impacts, and ecosystem impacts.The management recommendations are general recommendations on gear restrictions that could be applied to any Caribbean reef fishery.
Inter-American Development Bank (IDB);
Over the last few years, the topic of "stranded assets" resulting from environment-related risk factors has loomed larger. These factors include the effects of physical climate change as well as societal and regulatory responses to climate change. Despite the increasing prominence of these stranded assets as a topic of significant interest to academics, governments, financial institutions, and corporations, there has been little work specifically looking at this issue in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). This is a significant omission, given the region's exposure to environment-related risk factors, the presence of extensive fossil fuel resources that may become "unburnable" given carbon budget constraints, and the particular challenges and opportunities facing lower-income and emerging economies in LAC. This report includes an extensive literature review, reviews of case studies, in-depth interviews, extensive informal consultation, and a survey instrument to identify gaps in the stranded asset literature. The report builds on work undertaken in 2015 by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) on the issue of stranded assets. It aims to provide a deeper understanding of the issue and the existing literature about it, as well as highlight opportunities for future work, especially in LAC.
Pew Charitable Trusts;
A March 2014 study in the journal Fish and Fisheries describes a new approach to ecosystem-based fisheries management of coral reefs in the Caribbean Sea. The study, written by Peter J. Mumby, Ph.D., Pew marine fellow and professor at the University of Queensland in Australia, focuses on parrotfish, the target of an important fishery. Parrotfish also contribute to healthy coral ecosystems by consuming algae on certain parts of the reef. Mumby recommends that if the fishery must exist, managers should consider regulations that prevent fishing for parrotfish on the part of the reef where they play this important role, though fishing for other species could still occur.
Pew Charitable Trusts;
Fishery managers approved sweeping new rules to prevent overfishing and protect species in the U.S. Caribbean from Puerto Rico to the Virgin Islands.
Pew Charitable Trusts;
Los responsables de la gestión de la actividad pesquera aprobó nuevas normas para evitar la pesca excesiva y proteger las especies en el Caribe estadounidense, desde Puerto Rico hasta las Islas Vírgenes.
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP);
Welcome to the GEO-6 Regional Assessment for Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). This assessment provides an objective evaluation and analysis designed to support environmental decision making. Existing knowledge has been assessed to provide scientifically credible answers to policy-relevant questions (UNEP 2015). These questions include, but are not limited to:
• What is happening to the environment in Latin America and the Caribbean and why?
• What are the consequences for the environment and the human population of Latin America and the Caribbean?
• What is being done and how effective is it?
• What are the prospects for the environment in the future?
• What actions could be taken to achieve a more sustainable future?
United Nations Environment Assembly of the United Nations Environment Programme;
Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is a biologically rich region with complex political, social and natural contrasts. However, economies share a heavy reliance on primary products and natural resources, which account for approximately 50 per cent of all good exports. Urban areas continue to grow along with populations, coupled with growing consumption by middle classes. This has led to a situation in which air quality in cities has declined, emissions are growing, and water and other natural resources are under pressure. The future of the region's economies depends heavily on the region's natural capital, mitigating and adapting to climate change, and decoupling economic growth from resource consumption. The GEO-6 report looks at the state of play in five key areas, highlights drivers of environmental impacts and looking at ways to address them.
Leisure travel to the Caribbean is a key pillar of JetBlue's business model, with many customers flying to the region to enjoy paradise - like beaches and pristine waters. However, the ecosystems that support and provide those crystal - clear, turquoise - tinted seas are at risk. Some have already grossly deteriorated. Large - scale environmental degradation in the Caribbean is a risk to demand for leisure air travel to the area, thus impacting JetBlue.
EcoEarnings: A Shore Thing seeks to quantify both the risk and return to JetBlue from the region's natural attractions. This study seeks to link the importance of clean, intact, and healthy beaches and shorelines to JetBlue's profitability in the Caribbean, with a focus on JetBlue and industry revenue per available seat mile (RASM).
Our study began by observing a positive correlation between ecosystem health and RASM. The goal is to calculate the impact of the underlying drivers of ecosystem health -- including water quality, mangrove quality, and waste along the shorelines -- on industry RASM.
We find positive correlations among water quality, mangrove health, limited waste on shorelines, and RASM, but more data is required to statistically prove and validate the model. This interim report serves as a call to gather more information about shoreline health and to rally the efforts of policy makers, the tourism industry, and tourists to protect the Caribbean's greatest natural resource s -- its ecosystems.
This document describes a major new initiative to develop detailed and spatially explicit accounting of the value of marine ecosystem services at different scales. This information will inform key decision-makers in sectors ranging from international development to insurance and extractive industries to engineering. The Nature Conservancy's vision is to change perception and utilization of marine and coastal ecosystems. Working with stakeholders, it will catalyse a transformation in ocean management toward a paradigm based on explicit understanding of how and where "ocean wealth" is built, stored and generated.