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The Constitution Project's blue-ribbon Task Force on Detainee Treatment is made up of former high-ranking officials with distinguished careers in the judiciary, Congress, the diplomatic service, law enforcement, the military, and other parts of the executive branch, as well as recognized experts in law, medicine and ethics. The group includes conservatives and liberals, Republicans and Democrats. The Task Force was charged with providing the American people with a broad understanding of what is known -- and what may still be unknown -- about the past and current treatment of suspected terrorists detained by the U.S. government during the Clinton, Bush and Obama administrations.
This report is the product of more than two years of research, analysis and deliberation by the Task Force members and staff. It is based on a thorough examination of available public records and interviews with more than 100 people, including former detainees, military and intelligence officers, interrogators and policymakers. It is a comprehensive record of detainee treatment across multiple administrations and multiple geographic theatres -- Iraq, Afghanistan, Guantánamo and the so-called "black sites" -- yet published.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO);
The importance of fisheries for coastal communities and livelihoods in South America-Latin America; and the Caribbean (LAC) is well documented. This is particularly the case for 'coastal fisheries', including subsistence, traditional (artisanal) and advanced artisanal (or semi-industrial) varieties. There are, however, major gaps in knowledge about these fisheries, and major challenges in their assessment and management. Therein lies the key theme of this document, which seeks to contribute to a better understanding of coastal fisheries in the LAC region, as well as to generate discussion about ways to move towards sustainable fisheries. The document includes three main components. First, an introductory chapter provides an overview of general trends in the fisheries of the LAC countries, as well as some of the key challenges they are facing in terms of sustainability. Second, a set of twelve chapters each reporting on the coastal fisheries of one country in South America-Latin America; and the North America (Caribbean); collectively covering fisheries of each main subregion: the Caribbean islands (North America (Caribbean)-North America (Caribbean)-Barbados; Cuba, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Puerto Rico, Trinidad and Tobago), North and Central America (North America (Central America)-Costa Rica; Mexico) and South America (Argentina, South America (Northeastern)-Brazil; South America (Northwestern)-South America (Northwestern)-Colombia; Uruguay). All these country-specific chapters follow an integrated approach, to the extent possible, covering aspects ranging from the biological to the socio-economic. Third, the final component of the document contains a synthesis of information from the countries examined, an analysis of the main issues and challenges faced by the various fisheries, an outline of policy directions to improve fisheries management systems in the LAC region, identification of routes toward more integrated approaches for coastal fisheries management, and recommendations for 'ways forward' in dealing with fishery assessment and governance issues in the region.
Rockefeller Archive Center;
In 1935, after years of unofficial visits and discussions, the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Division (IHD) was at last formally invited by the Cuban government to participate in a cooperative project on the island. The IHD anticipated a fruitful endeavor based on their optimistic interpretations of the changes taking place in the Cuban political landscape and in the official sanitation branch: "We believe that a real renaissance in public health work generally is taking place in Cuba, manifested by the real interest shown by public health officials in improving and enlargening [sic] their Services and by the active desire of the public generally for health work." Seven years later, despite the success of its two cooperative projects (of all the IHD's local health units, the one launched in Cuba was deemed "the best in the Americas"), the IHD saw no hope for future effective ventures and transferred their local representative from Cuba to another post in Latin America. On his departure, he commented that working in Cuba was "the hardest job [he] ever had."
Rockefeller Archive Center;
Incorporated in 1913, the Rockefeller Foundation (RF) was established to address the biological threat posed by tropical diseases to developing regions throughout the world. The RF participated in efforts to promote public health, scientific discovery and research. They established various commissions aimed at addressing issues of science, modernity, and development. At the end of the nineteenth century, Cuba was under military occupation by the United States immediately following the conclusion of Spanish-American war. U.S. participation in Cuba continued past the period of formal occupation in the form of non-profit organizations. Initially working on yellow fever research, scientists from the United States and Cuba collaborated on eradication efforts. Decades later, Cuba was again the site of tropical disease research on malaria. These groups, including the RF and its subsidiary, the International Health Commission (IHC), established programs to advance technology, while dealing with public health and scientific education within Cuba.