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Center for Economic and Policy Research;
this paper shows that the U.S.' biggest trading partners in the Americas will likely see a significant loss in exports and GDP as the U.S. economy slows. Countries less reliant on the U.S. market will not be as negatively impacted. The paper makes two sets of projections for the decline in exports countries in the Americas may experience. The low-adjustment scenario assumes that the U.S. trade deficit falls from 5.2 percent of GDP in 2007 to 3.0 percent of GDP in 2010. The high adjustment scenario assumes that the U.S. trade deficit falls back to 1.0 percent of GDP by 2010. The paper finds that the countries that will likely suffer most as the result of a reduction in U.S. imports are the same countries with which the United States has implemented "free trade" agreements in recent decades, including the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) between the United States, Canada, and Mexico, and the Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA), which includes the United States along with Guatemala, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, and the Dominican Republic. Meanwhile, countries that are less dependent on the United States, or more reliant on domestic demand, will see smaller impacts of the U.S. recession on their exports and national GDP.
Migration Policy Institute;
Migration has profoundly affected - and continues to shape - the social and economic trajectories of the United States, Mexico, and Central America, as well as teh ways in which these countries relate and interact with each other.
At this writing, US legislators are debating how to reform an antiquated and inflexible immigration system that does not address 1) the mismatch between labor demand and visa supplyu, 2) the fate of the estimated 11 million unauthorized residents, or 3) the extended separation of US Citizens and residents and their families abroad. The immigration system has also lost control of its integrity by failing to maintain the rule of law in many migration matters.
The resulting reforms must tackle these deficiencies head on. They must introduce into the system the flexibility necessary to adjust visa numbers according to the ebbs and flows of the economy; give it the authority and resources to ensure that foreign workers and their family members are treated properly, give it the means to be fair to US workers; and make immigration enforcement stronger and smarter, both at the borders and inside the country. Only then can the United States have an immigration system that embraces and ensures legality, fairness, orderliness, responsiveness to labor market needs, and predictability for all who engage the system; and earns the trust of the public.
The goal of the Regional Migration Study Group, convened by the Migration Policy Institute and the Latin American Program/ Mexico Institute of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in 2010 has been to analyze and shed light ont he changes the migration system is undergoing and propose a pragmatic, cooperative way forward.
This research brief provides a glimpse at funding by U.S. foundations for Latin America between 2010 and 2012, with a special focus on Central America. The following analysis includes grants awarded directly to organizations in Latin America for work in the region or other parts of the world, as well as support to organizations in the U.S. and abroad with international programs targeting Latin America.
This fact sheet describes U.S. foundation funding in the larger context of funding by U.S. foundations for international causes more generally.
Too often in the past, public policy has either ignored adolescents or focused on them only when they behave in ways that trouble their elders. Compared to very young children and to the elderly, adolescents suffer from few life - threatening conditions. The formation adolescence of certain health habits with long-term negative consequences (such as smoking tobacco products, use of other addictive substances, or sexual activity without protection from STD and AIDS) often does not produce morbidity or mortality in adolescence itself. Rather the effects, and the costs, develop over a lifetime. Thus, when societies face decisions about where to invest significant health and other supportive resources, attention to adolescents often receives short shrift, despite the fact that after early infancy, adolescence is the period of greatest vulnerability until one gets to the diseases of old age. This work focuses on youth in Caribbean and Latin American Countries. This work contains both English and Spanish versions.
Center for Economic and Policy Research;
This paper provides an overview of major macroeconomic and social indicators and policy changes in Ecuador over the two and a half years since President Rafael Correa took office in January 2007, including economic growth, social spending, fiscal policy, inflation, foreign debt, the trade balance, and various policy changes as well as the recent impacts of the world recession.
Center for Economic and Policy Research;
This report describes the results of an independent recount of vote tally sheets from Haiti's November 28 presidential election. These 11,181 election tally sheets from across Haiti were posted online by Haiti's Provisional Electoral Council (CEP). It finds that for some 1,326 voting booths, or 11.9 percent of the total, tally sheets were either never received by the CEP or were quarantined for irregularities. This corresponds to about 12.7 percent of the vote, which was not counted and is not included in the final totals that were released by the CEP on December 7, 2010 and reported by the press. It also found many more tally sheets that had irregularities in the vote totals that were sufficient to disqualify them, and a large number of clerical errors that further undermines the credibility of the vote count. The report finds that based on the numbers of irregularities, it is impossible to determine who should advance to a second round. If there is a second round, it will be based on arbitrary assumptions and/or exclusions.
Carnegie Corporation of New York;
In 2007, a team of international security experts and researchers at the Henry L. Stimson Center launched an initiative to build an effective model for sustainable nonproliferation of biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons. The project represented an exciting and innovative way of thinking about security: a "dual-use" approach that operated at the nexus of the security and development communities. The team's ingenuity paid off. After less than six years, the Stimson Center is phasing out its involvement in the successful program, which will now be government funded. This paper shows how a novel idea, supported with modest grants from Carnegie Corporation, went on to secure millions in support from international sources, achieving real-world policy wins.
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP);
This report highlights some of the key lessons learned from the past about sustainable sanitation solutions, new thinking emerging from consolidated learning and innovative experimentation on-the-ground, and some of the conditions necessary for success if real improvements in sanitation are to be achieved and sustained in rural and urban areas. Special attention is placed on the shift from supply-led sanitation projects to demand-led and market-oriented projects. The report concludes that with much deeper attention and broadened interest in sanitation, a more realistic view of the complexity, time, resources and effort needed to meet the challenge of large-scale sustainable changes in sanitation at the household level.
John S. and James L. Knight Foundation;
Evaluates the impact of the initiative's rapid response unit, which investigates attacks and provides legal assistance; advertising campaign to make cases visible; and training program to prevent future attacks. Includes case summaries.
Examines the history of the debate surrounding how population growth affects national economies. Looks at specific regions of the world and how their differing policy environments affect the relationship between population change and economic development.
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF);
This document outlines UNICEF's activities in those areas which are of key importance to their overall mission, against the overall perspective of the global challenges in water supply, sanitation, hygiene, and child survival and development. It gives examples drawn from their work in Africa, Asia and Latin America. And it examines how UNICEF is preparing for new challenges by building appropriate humans resources, leveraging partnerships and providing leadership within and beyond the United Nations on water, sanitation and hygiene.