Feeding America (formerly America's Second Harvest);
This report presents information on the clients and agencies served by FB of Central & Eastern NC and Inter-Faith Food Shuttle. The information is drawn from a national study, Hunger in America 2010, conducted in 2009 for Feeding America (FA) (formerly America's Second Harvest), the nation's largest organization of emergency food providers. The national study is based on completed in-person interviews with more than 62,000 clients served by the FA national network, as well as on completed questionnaires from more than 37,000 FA agencies. The study summarized below focuses on emergency food providers and their clients who are supplied with food by food banks in the FA network.
The FA system served by FB of Central & Eastern NC and Inter-Faith Food Shuttle provides emergency food for an estimated 664,700 different people annually.27% of the members of households served by FB of Central & Eastern NC and Inter-Faith Food Shuttle are children under 18 years old (Table 5.3.2).35% of households include at least one employed adult (Table 5.7.1).Among households with children, 79% are food insecure and 32% are food insecure with very low food security (Table 18.104.22.168).40% of clients served by FB of Central & Eastern NC and Inter-Faith Food Shuttle report having to choose between paying for food and paying for utilities or heating fuel (Table 6.5.1).38% had to choose between paying for food and paying for medicine or medical care (Table 6.5.1).31% of households served by FB of Central & Eastern NC and Inter-Faith Food Shuttle report having at least one household member in poor health (Table 8.1.1)FB of Central & Eastern NC and Inter-Faith Food Shuttle included approximately 808 agencies at the administration of this survey, of which 582 have responded to the agency survey. Of the responding agencies, 442 had at least one food pantry, soup kitchen, or shelter.73% of pantries, 48% of kitchens, and 44% of shelters are run by faith-based agencies affiliated with churches, mosques, synagogues, and other religious organizations (Table 10.6.1).Among programs that existed in 2006, 85% of pantries, 69% of kitchens, and 58% of shelters of FB of Central & Eastern NC and Inter-Faith Food Shuttle reported that there had been an increase since 2006 in the number of clients who come to their emergency food program sites (Table 10.8.1).Food banks are by far the single most important source of food for agencies with emergency food providers, accounting for 74% of the food distributed by pantries, 39% of the food distributed by kitchens, and 46% of the food distributed by shelters (Table 13.1.1).As many as 94% of pantries, 86% of kitchens, and 70% of shelters in FB of Central & Eastern NC and Inter-Faith Food Shuttle use volunteers (Table 13.2.1).
In this study, we analyze a unique set of student and teacher demographic and discipline data from North Carolina elementary schools to examine whether being matched to a same-race teacher affects the rate at which students receive detentions, are suspended, or are expelled. The data follow individual students over several years, enabling us to compare the disciplinary outcomes of students in years when they had a same-race teacher and in years when they did not.
We find consistent evidence that North Carolina students are less likely to be removed from school as punishment when they and their teachers are the same race. This effect is driven almost entirely by black students, especially black boys, who are markedly less likely to be subjected to exclusionary discipline when taught by black teachers. There is little evidence of any benefit for white students of being matched with white teachers.
Although these results are based on a single state, they should encourage efforts to promote greater diversity in the teaching workforce, which remains overwhelmingly white. In addition to offering more diverse role models at the front of the class, our findings suggest that employing more teachers of color could help minimize the chances that students of color, who trail their white peers in academic achievement, are also subjected to discipline that removes them from school.