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Center for Economic and Policy Research;
Recent estimates of the U.S. economic gains that would result from the proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) are very small -- only 0.13 percent of GDP by 2025. Taking into account the un-equalizing effect of trade on wages, this paper finds the median wage earner will probably lose as a result of any such agreement. In fact, most workers are likely to lose -- the exceptions being some of the bottom quarter or so whose earnings are determined by the minimum wage; and those with the highest wages who are more protected from international competition. Rather, many top incomes will rise as a result of TPP expansion of the terms and enforcement of copyrights and patents. The long-term losses, going forward over the same period (to 2025), from the failure to restore full employment to the United States have been some 25 times greater than the potential gains of the TPP, and more than five times as large as the possible gains resulting from a much broader trade agenda.
Hauser Institute For Civil Society at Harvard Kennedy School;
Séculos de tradições religiosas, normas culturais, histórias políticas e condições econômicas moldaram o ambiente atual para doações e investimentos sociais privados na América Latina. Embora as pessoas com patrimônio elevado da região tenham uma longa história de fazer doações à caridade, o surgimento relativamente recente de democracias estáveis, o crescimento econômico firme e a acumulação de patrimônio pessoal criaram as bases para uma maior atividade filantrópica. Ao mesmo tempo, cortes nos serviços públicos, as desigualdades e a pobreza persistente em alguns países ressaltaram a necessidade de investimentos sociais privados, para alavancar o desenvolvimento social e econômico.
Este estudo descreve o ambiente filantrópico e ilustra os importantes e inspiradores investimentos sociais de pessoas com patrimônio elevado em seis países da América Latina; Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colômbia, México e Peru. Ele dá novas percepções sobre a alma e a prática de filantropia na região e, em termos otimistas, ajudará a encorajar outras pessoas a investirem capital filantrópico privado para o bem público.
Siglos de tradiciones religiosas, normas culturales, historias políticas y condiciones económicas han moldeado el entorno actual de la filantropía privada y la inversión social en América Latina. Si bien las personas de alto nivel patrimonial de la región tienen una larga trayectoria de donaciones benéficas, el surgimiento relativamente reciente de democracias estables, crecimiento económico y acumulación de riqueza personal han sentado las bases para la aceleración de las actividades filantrópicas. Al mismo tiempo, en algunos países, las reducciones en los servicios gubernamentales, la desigualdad severa y la pobreza persistente han recalcado la necesidad de inversión social privada para la promoción del desarrollo social y económico.
Este estudio describe el entorno filantrópico y las importantes e inspiradoras inversiones sociales de las personas de alto nivel patrimonial en seis países latinoamericanos: Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, México y Perú. También ofrece una mirada nueva al alma y al ejercicio de la filantropía en la región, con la esperanza de que sirva para alentar a otros a invertir capital filantrópico privado en el bien común.
Hauser Institute For Civil Society at Harvard Kennedy School;
Centuries of religious traditions, cultural norms, political histories, and economic conditions have shaped today's environment for private giving and social investment in Latin America. While the region's wealthy individuals have a long history of charitable giving, the relatively recent emergence of stable democracies, steady economic growth, and accumulation of personal wealth have provided a foundation for accelerated philanthropic activity. At the same time, cutbacks in government services, acute inequalities, and persistent poverty in some countries have underscored the need for private social investment to help address social and economic development.
This study describes the philanthropic environment and illuminates the important and inspirational social investments of wealthy individuals in six Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. It provides new insight into both the soul and practice of philanthropy in the region, and, optimistically, will help to encourage others to invest private philanthropic capital for the common public good.
Innovations in Civic Participation;
This paper presents findings from an exploratory study of government policies that involve youth in community service in 19 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. The research, which was performed in 2004, provides descriptive information and explores the context within which national youth service policies can emerge and thrive. While it is assumed that well-designed national youth service policies provide a framework for engaging youth in pro-social activities that benefit themselves and their communities, relatively little research is available on the subject. Findings indicate that 13 of 19 countries in the study have a national youth service policy, and that the policies vary in forms and configuration. Facilitators and obstacles of these policies are discussed. The paper concludes by providing recommendations to policy makers.
Centro Filantropia e Inversiones Sociales Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez;
Este primer estudio del Centro de Filantropía e Inversiones Sociales de la Escuela de Gobierno de la Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez (CEFIS) busca dar luces de las visiones, prácticas, carencias y potenciales que la práctica filantrópica tiene en nuestro país. Particularmente, desde la visión y experiencia de aquellos con capacidad de convertirse en agentes de donación, esto es, individuos de alto patrimonio y a la vez miembros de grupos controladores de los principales grupos empresariales del país.
Se presente un extracto de los resultados de este primer estudio. Se espera que esta investigación del Centro de Filantropía e Inversiones Sociales contribuya a generar un debate informado sobre el potencial que tiene la filantropía como factor de desarrollo de la sociedad civil y la creación de hábitos sociales -como la colaboración, la confianza y la cohesión social-, necesarios para el fortalecimiento de una sociedad democrática.
Environmental Defense Fund;
Among the largest area-based catch share programs in the world, the Chilean National Benthic Resources Territorial Use Rights for Fishing Program (TURF Program) includes over 17,000 artisanal fishermen comanaging over 550 distinct areas along the coast. The voluntary system primarily manages loco, Chile's most valuable mollusc, and provides secure access to benthic resources to groups of artisanal fishermen. Management is built on science performed by universities and consultants, resulting in co-management by the government, industry and the private sector.
World Bank, The;
In most countries the state owns the water resources and the hydraulic infrastructure, and public officials decide who gets the water, how it is to be used, and how much will be charged for it. But costly inefficiencies in the supply and use of water support a shift from government provision to a market-based approach that is more effective and less wasteful Markets can allow rapid changes in allocation in response to changing demands for water and can stimulate investment and employment as investors are assured of access to secure supplies of water. Because of water's unique characteristics, such markets do not work everywhere; nor do they resolve all water-related issues. By designing appropriate water laws and regulations and by strengthening private and public institutions to administer them, formal water markets can effectively address rising demands for groundwater and for water found in rivers, lakes, and canals. Lessons from Chile's experience demonstrate that formal water markets can improve the economic efficiency of water use and stimulate investment.
World Bank, The;
This report is a summary of country studies in Latin America and the Caribbean, addressing the use of market-based instruments (MBIs) and command-and-control (CAC) measures for environmental management in the region. Even though MBIs can significantly add efficiency to existing CAC mechanisms, the scope of MBIs should match the countries institutional capacity to implement them. Gradual and flexible reforms are likely to succeed within the current regional context of continued institutional changes. A key function of MBIs is usually revenue collection, though it does not necessarily lead to successful environmental management. The study suggests that revenues should be channeled to local authorities for an effective MBI's implementation. The report also critiques the regular practice of international donor agencies in recommending the solutions suitable for developed countries, without considering the institutional conditions in developing countries. Further, the study explores both the successes and difficulties experienced in the region regarding regulations, macro-policies, and MBIs; the institutional frameworks of the countries under review; and, the issues considered in the design of MBIs, in order to promote a beneficial dialogue among them.
This paper examines government policies that aim to balance work and family life, focusing on employment based leaves and early childhood education and care (ECEC) services in Latin America. The paper charts the policy reforms across the region in both maternity, paternity and parental leaves and ECEC services, focusing especially on services for 0-3-year-old children. To illuminate regional trends and best practices, it provides more detailed case studies of policy reforms in Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica and Uruguay, with regard to both policy design and implementation. Drawing from these case studies, the paper finds that Latin America is moving in an equity-enhancing direction, particularly in terms of social equity, both in employment-based leaves and in care services. Care policies have a window of opportunity to become equity-enhancing policies both in terms of socio-economics and gender. Because these policies are being defined and implemented against the backdrop of deep familialism and high degrees of social inequality, equity enhancement is a challenging policy goal. The paper concludes with identifying the key factors in that are important in designing equity-enhancing change in work-family policies. This paper was produced for UN Women's flagship report Progress of the World's Women 2015-2016 to be released as part of the UN Women discussion paper series.
Marine Resources Assessment Group (MRAG), Ltd.;
Fisheries change often carries its own financial rewards. Many reforms and changes which support conservation also result in higher profits and revenue streams for the involved businesses. This makes fisheries a potentially attractive investment arena for many commercial investors, once reform projects are properly structured and agreed upon between conservationists and the involved businesses. As commercial investors and social investors become more involved in the field of fisheries, the scale of the impacts that can be achieved is expected to expand. Foundations in the field are now looking to support this transition from fisheries conservation as a purely philanthropic investment to a blended conservation and business investment by encouraging non-profits, social change leaders and business entrepreneurs to create innovatively structured projects that can both build value for private investors and improve the speed and scale of fisheries conservation impacts. This report aims to support this transition, by providing information about and high-lighting the work of those at the forefront of innovative fisheries finance.